Prentice Hall Literature Success Tracker

Grade 6

Photo Credits

Grade 6 Unit 1 9: Bkgrnd. JeremyWalker/Getty Images; 9: Inset. © James Gritz; 10-11: b. Evelyn Macduff/Getty Images; 12: Jeremy Walker/Getty Images; 12: l. Jeremy Walker/Getty Images; 13: l. © Moodboard/ CORBIS; 14: Photo 24/Brand X Pictures/Jupiter Images; 14-15: © Brand X Pictures; 17: l. Silver Burdett Ginn; 17: r. Silver Burdett Ginn; 23: t. Courtesy of Cynthia Rylant; 23: b. © Lew Robertson/CORBIS; 24: Bkgrnd. © narvikk/istockphoto.com; 24: Inset. © Lew Robert-son/CORBIS; 26: © GK Hart/Vikki Hart; 27: © Ciaran Griffin; 28: © Lew Robertson/CORBIS; 31: t. Prentice Hall; 31: b. istockphoto.com/maten; 32: Christie’s Images/CORBIS; 34: The Art Ar-chive/Free Library of Philadelphia/Album/Joseph Martin; 36: The Granger Collection, New York; 37: The Art Archive / Free library Philadelphia; 38: istockphoto.com/maten; 45: t. Courtesy of the Author; 45: Randy Faris/CORBIS; 46-47: Randy Faris/CORBIS; 47: Car Culture/CORBIS; 48-49: t. Marcela Brasse/istockphoto.com;48: Orlando/Hulton Archive/Getty Images, Inc; 50: l. istock-photo.com; 50: r. Valerie Loiseleux/istockphoto.com; 53: t. Julian Calder/CORBIS; 53: Copyright © 1992 by James Herriot and Ruth Brown. From James Herriot’s Treasury for Children by James Herriot, illustrated by Ruth Brown and Peter Barrett. Reprinted by permission of St. Martin’s Press, LLC; 55: t. Copyright © 1992 by James Herriot and Ruth Brown. From James Herriot’s Treasury for Children by James Herriot, illustrated by Ruth Brown and Peter Barrett. Reprinted by permission of St. Martin’s Press, LLC; 56: Copyright © 1992 by James Herriot and Ruth Brown. From James Herriot’s Treasury for Children by James Herriot, illustrated by Ruth Brown and Pe-ter Barrett. Reprinted by permission of St. Martin’s Press, LLC; 57: Copyright © 1992 by James Herriot and Ruth Brown. From James Herriot’s Treasury for Children by James Herriot, illus-trated by Ruth Brown and Peter Barrett. Reprinted by permission of St. Martin’s Press, LLC; 58: l. Copyright © 1992 by James Herriot and Ruth Brown. From James Herriot’s Treasury for Children by James Herriot, illustrated by Ruth Brown and Peter Barrett. Reprinted by permission of St. Martin’s Press, LLC; 58: r. Copyright © 1992 by James Herriot and Ruth Brown. From James Her-riot’s Treasury for Children by James Herriot, illustrated by Ruth Brown and Peter Barrett. Reprinted by permission of St. Martin’s Press, LLC; 59: Copyright © 1992 by James Herriot and Ruth Brown. From James Herriot’s Treasury for Children by James Herriot, illustrated by Ruth Brown and Peter Barrett. Reprinted by permission of St. Martin’s Press, LLC; 60: Copyright © 1992 by James Herriot and Ruth Brown. From James Herriot’s Treasury for Children by James Her-riot, illustrated by Ruth Brown and Peter Barrett. Reprinted by permission of St. Martin’s Press, LLC; 67: tl. istockphoto.com; 67: ml. BRIAN J. SKERRY/National Geographic Image Collec-tion; 68: istockphoto.com; 69: © Don Hammond/Design Pics/CORBIS; 70: © Michael Newman / Photo-Edit; 73: r. Prentice Hall; 73: l. Courtesy Susan Quinlan; 82: r. Peter Anderson/ © Dorling Kin-dersley; 82: tl. Cyril Laubscher/ © Dorling Kindersley; 82: tm. Geoff Dann/ © Dorling Kinder-sley; 82: ml. Colin Keates © Dorling Kindersley, Courtesy of the Natural History Museum, London; 82: bl. Frank Greenway/ © Dorling Kindersley; 82: m. © Dorling Kindersley; 82: bm. © Geoff Dann/ Dorling Kindersley; 95: t. The Mark Twain House, Hartford, CT; 98: Inset. Bettmann/CORBIS; 99: The Granger Collection, New York; 103: Bettmann/CORBIS; 113: t. Photo: © Daniel Cima; 120: Col-lage (detail), 1992, Juan Sanchez, Courtesy of Juan Sanchez and Guarighen, Inc., NYC; 121: b. AP/Wide World Photos; 123: t. © Jenny Bornstein; 124: © Kathryn Bell istockphoto.com; 125: © Sharon Dominick istockphoto.com; 126: John McNally/PhotoLibrary.com; 126-127: l. George McCarthy/CORBIS; 128: m. © Elena Kalistratova istockphoto.com; 128: l. © Marguerite Voisey is-tockphoto.com; 141: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 142: © Helen Vaughn/Superstock; 146: Im-ages.com/CORBIS;149: Inset. Peter Byron/PhotoEdit; 150: Michael Newman/PhotoEdit

Grade 6 Unit 2 180: PEANUTS reprinted by permission of United Feature Syndicate, Inc.; 184: © Still Picture/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 191: t. Photo by Austin V. Hansen, Jr. Courtesy of the author; 191: b. Photodisc; 192: Bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 192: tm. © Push Pictures/CORBIS; 193:b. Photodisc; 195: b. © Sean Justice/CORBIS; 195: t. © Push Pictures/CORBIS; 197: istock-photo.com/jubrancoelho; 198: CORBIS Digital Stock; 201: b. © Push Pictures/CORBIS; 202: r. Pho-todisc; 202: bl. Photodisc; 202: tl. © Push Pictures/CORBIS; 202: tl. © Push Pictures/CORBIS; 205: t. © Joel Gardner; 221: t. Robert Maass/CORBIS; 221: b. istockphoto.com/ PaulMaguire; 223: from “Zlateh the Goat and Other Stories” by Isaac Bashevis Singer, illustrations by Maurice Sendak © 1966, HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.; 225: from “Zlateh the Goat and Other Stories” by Isaac Bashevis Singer, illustrations by Maurice Sendak © 1966, HarperCollins, Publishers, Inc.; 227: from “Zlateh the Goat and Other Stories” by Isaac Bashevis Singer, illustrations by Maurice Sendak © 1966, HarperCollins, Publishers, Inc.; 230: from “Zlateh the Goat and Other Stories” by Isaac Bashevis Singer, illustrations by Maurice Sendak © 1966, HarperCollins, Pub-lishers, Inc.; 233: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 234: Time to Hunt, John Newcomb/SuperStock; 236: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 236: l. Bettmann/CORBIS; 245: t. Archives Charmet; 245: m. Private Collection, Archives Charmet /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 245: b. Private Collection, The Stapleton Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library International; 246: tl. Private Collection, Archives Charmet/The Bridgeman Art Library International; 246: tr. Private Collection, Archives Charmet / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 246: b. Private Collection, Archives Charmet/The Bridgeman Art Library International; 247: b. Richard Bon-son/ © Dorling Kindersley; 248: t. David Sutherland/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 248: b. The Art Ar-chive/Egyptian Museum Cairo / Gianni Dagli Orti; 251: b. Didi Cutler; 251: t. gezette.de Buro fur Fo-tografie; 252: Daddy’s Girl, 1992, Carlton Murrell, Courtesy of the artist, photo by John Lei/Omni-Photo Communications, Inc.; 255: Biking for Fun, 1992, Carlton Murrell, Courtesy of the artist, photo by John Lei/Omni-Photo Communications, Inc.; 258: Mother, I Love to Ride, 1992, Carlton Murrell, Courtesy of the artist, photo by John Lei/Omni-Photo Communications, Inc.; 260: t. 273: t. Photo by Charles Barry. Copyright Santa Clara University; 281: © Bill Aron/PhotoEdit; 285: t. Courtesy of the author. Photo by Don Perkins.; 286: Stephane Jorisch; 290: Stephane Jorisch; 290: tl. Stephane Jorisch; 291: Stephane Jorisch; 292: Stephane Jorisch; 294-295: Stephane Jorisch; 296: Stephane Jorish; 303: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 304: The Granger Col-lection, New York; 308: b. Getty Images; 309: r. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM™; 317: t. Prentice Hall; 323: Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS; 335: CORBIS; 336 © Bettmann/CORBIS; 343: b. AP/Wide World Photos

Grade 6 Unit 3 379: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 380: CALVIN AND HOBBES © 1992 Watter-son. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved. 383: Boulat Alexandra/Sipa; 384: Boulat Alexandra/Sipa; 387: Boulat Alexandra/Sipa 389: Boulat Alexan-dra/Sipa; 390: Boulat Alexandra/Sipa; 392: Boulat Alexandra/Sipa; 397: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 398: The Goosegirl, c.1866 (oil on canvas), Millet, Jean-Francois (1814-75) / © Tokyo Fuji Art Mu-seum, Tokyo, Japan, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 399: tl. Time & Life Pic-tures/Getty Images/Walter Sanders/Stringer; 400: bl. Getty Images/Museum of the City of New York/Contributor; 401: Photolibrary.com /Peter Fogg; 405: t. Yvonne Hemsey/Getty Images; 406: © Anthony Potter Collections/Archive Photos; 406-407: border. The Granger Collection, New York; 406: Bkgrnd. Peter Hansen/istockphoto.com; 410: © Levick/Archive Photos; 412: AP/Wide World Pho-tos; 414: mr. © SuperStock, Inc. / SuperStock; 421: t. Seth Resnick/CORBIS; 421: b. Getty Im-ages, Inc; 422: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 423: Bettmann/CORBIS; 427: b. Courtesy of the author; 428: National Baseball Library and Archive, Cooperstown, N.Y.; 429: AP/Wide World Photos/Gene J. Puskar); 431: National Baseball Library and Archive, Cooperstown, N.Y.;439: AP/Wide World Pho-tos; 441: Rich Pilling/MLB Photos/Getty Images; 445: t. Copyright © by Julia Alvarez/Bill Eich-ner. Reprinted by permission of Susan Bergholz Literary Services, NY. All Rights reserved.; 448: Bettmann/CORBIS; 450: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 452: The Granger Collection, New York; 454: The Granger Collection, New York; 455: b. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 455: b. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 455: b. Copyright © North Wind/North Wind Picture Archives - - All rights reserved.; 457: The Granger Collection, New York; 458: ml. © SuperStock, Inc. / Super-Stock; 474: l. Steve & Dave Maslowski/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 474: r. David M. Dennis/Animals Animals; 479: t. Courtesy Eloise Greenfield; 479: b. HarperCollins; 481: CORBIS; 491: t. Photo: Mike Minehan, Berlin; 492-493: t. Getty Images/David McNew/Staff; 497: t. Harper Collins; 497: b. Getty Images; 498: Getty Images, Inc; 501: Michael Grimm / Getty Images, Inc.; 505: Frank Siteman; 513: Image of The Advertising Archive; 514: The Advertising Archive Ltd./The Picture Desk; 517: t. NO CREDIT NECESSARY; 517: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 518-519: CORBIS; 520: Bettmann/CORBIS; 522: Culver Pictures, Inc.;526: Bonnie Kamin/PhotoEdit Inc.; 529: Prentice Hall

Grade 6 Unit 4 551: © Images.com/CORBIS; 552: LUCKY COW © 2003 Mark Pett. Dist. by UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.; 555: Three Fruit, Ashton Hin-richs/SuperStock; 557: Patrik Giardino/CORBIS; 557: Getty Images; 559: Patrik Giardino/CORBIS; 563: t. UPI/CORBIS-Bettmann; 563: b. No credit necessary; 566: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 566-567: Bkgrnd. Kathleen Brown/CORBIS; 567: Inset. Bettmann/CORBIS; 571: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 571: l. The Granger Collection, New York; 571: m. Getty Images; 575: © Jeffery A. Salter; 576-577: Illustrations copyright © 1998 by Jane Breskin Zalben from The Walrus and the Carpenter. Published by Caroline House, Boyds Mills Press, Inc. Reprinted by permission.; 578-579: Illustrations copyright © 1998 by Jane Breskin Zalben from The Walrus and the Carpenter. Published by Caroline House, Boyds Mills Press, Inc. Reprinted by permission.; 587: t. Photo by Bachrach; 587: m. Getty Images; 587: b. Amherst College Archives and Special Collections, by permission of the Trustees of Amherst College; 593: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 593: m. © Jan Cobb; 593: b. Bentley Historical Library; 594: Ezra Davenport, 1929, Clarence Hol-brook Carter, Oil on canvas, Courtesy of the artist; 595: NASA;596: Charles Neal/SuperStock; 605: Chris Newbert/Minden Pictures;606:Richard Hackett/omniphoto.com; 609: b. Dimitri Kes-sel/Life Magazine; 609: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 612: David Macias/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 623: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 623: Isidro Rodriguez. Used by permission of Marian Reiner for the author;624: Moodboard/CORBIS; 629: t. Myochi-in Temple; 629: b. © 1999 Little Brown & Co. Illustration © 1999 Karen Lee Baker; 630: Christie’s Images/CORBIS; 632: Harper-Collins; 639: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 640: “No Thank You” from Falling Up by Shel Silverstein. Copyright © 1996 by Shel Silverstein. Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.; 644: © Frank Krahmer/zefa/CORBIS; 647: t. William Shakespeare, (detail), attributed to John Taylor, by courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, London; 647: Photo by George Wallace; 647: © Nancy Crampton; 648:Blue Lantern Studio/CORBIS; 649: University of Washington Press. Photo by Gordon Robotham; 650: CORBIS; 657: Photodisc/GettyImages; 661: b. © 1998 James McGoon; 661: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 662: © Harpur Garden Library/CORBIS; 665: Jim Vecchi/CORBIS; 668: Jonathan Nourok/PhotoEdit Inc.

Grade 6 Unit 5 693: t. © Getty Images; 694: ZIGGY © 1998 ZIGGY AND FRIENDS, INC. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.; 695: © Getty Images; 697: Rights and Permissions will be adding acknowledgement in their section; 698: border. © Danny Leh-man/CORBIS; 700: border. © Danny Lehman/CORBIS; 701: Rights and Permissions will be adding ac-knowledgement in their section; 702: Rights and Permissions will be adding acknowledgement in their section; 702: border. © Danny Lehman/CORBIS; 710: Getty Images; 713: “illustrations” by Jules Fieffer, copyright © 1961 by Jules Feiffer. Copyright renewed 1989 by Jules Feiffer, from The Phantom Tollbooth by Norton Juster illustrated by Jules Feiffer. Used with permission of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Random House, Inc.; 715: “illustrations” by Jules Fieffer, copyright © 1961 by Jules Feiffer. Copyright renewed 1989 by Jules Feiffer, from The Phantom Tollbooth by Norton Juster illustrated by Jules Feiffer. Used with permission of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Random House, Inc.; 715: 2. John Woodcock/ © Dorling Kin-dersley; 715: 3. HIP/Art Resource, NY; 715: 4. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY; 715: 5. Mike Dunning/ © Dorling Kindersley; 717: “illustrations” by Jules Fieffer, copyright © 1961 by Jules Feiffer. Copyright renewed 1989 by Jules Feiffer, from The Phantom Tollbooth by Norton Juster illustrated by Jules Feiffer. Used with permission of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Random House, Inc.; 747: t. Photo, John Martin; 760: Getty Images; 784: Audio Visual Archives at the John F. Kennedy Library; 785: Andy Crawfod/ © Dorling Kindersley; 786: David Frazier Photolibrary/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 789: t. © United Feature Syndicate, Inc.; 790: © United Feature Syndicate, Inc.; 796: David Hsieh/The Repertory Actors Theatre; 800: Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 803: Prentice Hall

Grade 6 Unit 6 825: t. Adolf Fenyes/SuperStock; 826:Reprinted with the permission of Bob Thaves and the Cartoonist Group. All rights reserved.; 827: The Granger Collection, New York; 829: Rights and Permissions will include acknowledgement in their section; 830: Rights and Permis-sions will include acknowledgement in their section;832: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM™; 834-835: Rights and Permissions will include acknowledgement in their section; 836: Rights and Permissions will include acknowledgement in their section; 841: b. L. N. Tolstoi, I. E. Repin, Sovfoto/Eastfoto; 841: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 847: The Granger Collection, New York; 847: b. Cour-tesy of Dr. My-Van Tran; 859: t. Courtesy, Houghton Mifflin Company; 863: Mimmo Jodice/CORBIS; 867: t. Photo by Godfrey Boehnke, Courtesy of the University of Auckland; 885: t. Bet-mann/CORBIS; 885: b. Rights and Permissions will include credit line in their Acknowledgments section; 891: Walt Disney Pictures/Photofest; 896: Walt Disney Pictures/Photofest; 898:Walt Disney Pictures/Photofest; 900: Walt Disney Pictures/Photofest; 901: Walt Disney Pic-tures/Photofest; 903: Walt Disney Pictures/Photofest; 915: t. Reuters Pictures; 923: t. Pren-tice Hall; 935: t. Courtesy of the author; 941: t. Alexander Limont; 941: © SuperStock, Inc. / SuperStock 900-128723-A-P22B; 942-943: © SuperStock, Inc. / SuperStock 900-128727-A-P22J; 943: © SuperStock, Inc. / SuperStock 900-128724-A-P22B; 946: Fairy Art Museum, Tokyo, Japan/The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 949: © SuperStock, Inc. / SuperStock 900-128723-A-P22B; 951: b. © SuperStock, Inc. / SuperStock 900-128730-A-P22J; 952: CORBIS; 961: Bob Krist/CORBIS; 962: Arun Pottirayil / © Dorling Kindersley; 963: t. No Credit Necessary; 963: b. Miriam Berkley; 980: b. Terry Cryer/CORBIS; 980: r. tk; 980: ml. Courtesy of Columbia Records; 980: mr. Courtesy of Columbia Records; 988: Tony Freeman//PhotoEdit Inc.; 991: Prentice Hall

Staff Credits
The people who made up the Pearson Prentice Hall Literature team—representing design, edito-rial, editorial services, education technology, manufacturing and inventory planning, market research, marketing services, planning and budgeting, product planning, production services, project office, publishing processes, and rights and permissions—are listed below. Boldface type denotes the core team members. Tobey Antao, Margaret Antonini, Rosalyn Arcilla, Penny Baker, James Ryan Bannon, Stephan Barth, Tricia Battipede, Krista Baudo, Rachel Beckman, Julie Berger, Lawrence Berkowitz, Melissa Biezin, Suzanne Biron, Rick Blount, Marcela Boos, Betsy Bostwick, Kay Bosworth, Jeff Bradley, Andrea Brescia, Susan Brorein, Lois Brown, Pam Carey, Lisa Carrillo, Geoffrey Cassar, Patty Cavuoto, Doria Ceraso, Jennifer Ciccone, Jaime Cohen, Rebecca Cottingham, Joe Cucchiara, Jason Cuoco, Alan Dalgleish, Karen Edmonds, Irene Ehrmann, Stephen Eldridge, Amy Fleming, Dorothea Fox, Steve Frankel, Cindy Frederick, Philip Fried, Diane Fristachi, Phillip Gagler, Pamela Gallo, Husain Gatlin, Elaine Goldman, Elizabeth Good, John Guild, Phil Hadad, Patricia Hade, Monduane Harris, Brian Hawkes, Jennifer B. Heart, Martha Heller, John Hill, Beth Hyslip, Mary Jean Jones, Grace Kang, Nathan Kinney, Roxanne Knoll, Kate Krimsky, Monisha Kumar, Jill Kushner, Sue Langan, Melisa Leong, Susan Levine, Dave Liston, Mary Luthi, George Lychock, Gregory Lynch, Joan Mazzeo, Sandra McGloster, Eve Melnechuk, Kathleen Mercandetti, Salita Mehta, Artur Mkrtchyan, Karyn Mueller, Alison Muff, Christine Mulcahy, Kenneth Myett, Elizabeth Nemeth, Stefano Nese, Carrie O’Connor, April Okano, Kim Ortell, Sonia Pap, Raymond Parenteau, Dominique Pickens, Linda Punskovsky, Sheila Ramsay, Maureen Raymond, Mairead Reddin, Erin Rehill-Seker, Renee Roberts, Laura Ross, Bryan Salacki, Sharon Schultz, Jennifer Serra, Melissa Shustyk, Rose Sievers, Christy Singer, Yvonne Stecky, Cynthia Summers, Steve Thomas, Merle Uuesoo, Roberta Warshaw, Patricia Williams, Daniela Velez

Additional Credits
Lydie Bemba, Victoria Blades, Denise Data, Rachel Drice, Eleanor Kostyk, Jill Little, Loraine Machlin, Evan Marx, Marilyn McCarthy, Patrick O’Keefe, Shelia M. Smith, Lucia Tirondola, Laura Vivenzio, Linda Waldman, Angel Weyant

Grade 7

Photo Credits

Grade 7 Unit 1 1: © Imtek Imagineering/ Masterfie; 5: © Sandra Templeton/Stock Illustration Source, Inc.; 6: PEANUTS reprinted by permission of United Feature Syndicate, Inc.; 7: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 9: l. G.G. Kopilak/SuperStock; 9: m. Photofest; 9: r. istockphoto.com/ casejustin9 Bkgrnd istockphoto.com/Omentum; 11: © image100/CORBIS; 13: Courtesy of the Library of Congress: 15: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 15: b. Bett-mann/CORBIS; 17: Ian Shaw/Getty Images; 19: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 19: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 20: Bett-mann/CORBIS; 25: Courtesy of Cynthia Rylant; 26: tr. James Gritz/Getty Images; 26: m. © Kristine Slipson; 26-27: b. Metej Michelizza; 28: l. Stephen Oliver/ © Dorling Kindersley; 28: l. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 28: l. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 28: r. © Melvin Migin; 29: l. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 29: l. istockphoto.com; 29: m. © Scott Spencer; 29: tr. James Gritz/Getty Images; 30: tr. James Gritz/Getty Images; 30: l. © Oliver Blondeau; 33: Reprinted by permission of The Gina Maccoby Literary Agency. Copyright © 1982 by Jean Fritz; 34: tl. Reprinted by permission of The Gina Maccoby Literary Agency. Copyright © 1982 by Jean Fritz; 34: frame. istockphoto.com; 34-35: Bkgrnd. © Doug Landreth/CORBIS; 35: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 36: © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 38: © Craig Tuttle/CORBIS; 39: Reprinted by permission of The Gina Maccoby Literary Agency. Copyright © 1982 by Jean Fritz; 39-44: frame. istock-photo.com; 41: istockphoto.com; 42: © Darrell Gulin/CORBIS; 44: tl. © Michael S. Yamashita/CORBIS; 44: Bkgrnd. © Doug Landreth/CORBIS; 51: t. Rollie McKenna; 52-53: Bkgrnd. Bulent Gultek; 52: © Picture-Net/CORBIS; 55: Yuri Dojc/Getty Images; 56: © Helen Norman/CORBIS; 61: t. Christopher Felver/CORBIS; 61: b. © Ross Germaniuk/Design Pics/CORBIS; 61: m. Irene Chan /istockphoto.com; 62: t. Irene Chan /istockphoto.com; 63:b. © Ross Germaniuk/Design Pics/CORBIS; 64 Peter M. Fisher/CORBIS; 65: © Tom & Dee Ann McCarthy/PhotoEdit; 66: t. Jeremiah Thompson/istockphoto.com073 © Dorling Kindersley; 74: © Dorling Kin-dersley; 75: Bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 79: tr. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 79: b. © Hulton Ar-chive/Archive Photos/Getty Images; 80: Bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 81:Stockbyte/Getty Images, Inc; 82: Bkgrnd. Stefan Klein/istockphoto.com; 82: Lawrence Migdale; 83: istockphoto.com; 85: Francis G. Mayer/CORBIS; 101: l. AP/Wide World Photos; 108: Images.com/CORBIS; 113: Prentice Hall; 113: b. Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images, Inc.; 114: bl. CORBIS; 114: r. Bettmann/CORBIS; 114: tl. © NMPFT/PAA/SSPL/The Image Wroks; 116: Albert Eisenstaedt/Time and Life Pictures/Getty Images, Inc; 119: Hikaru Iwasaki/United States Holocaust Memo-rial Museum; 121: Albert Eisenstaedt/Time and Life/Getty Images, Inc.; 122:Shraga Wainer, courtesy of United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Photo Archives; 123: t. © Hulton Getty/Archive Photos; 123: b. Key-stone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images, Inc.; 131: Photo: Daniel Cima © ; 132: l. istockphoto.com; 132: r. Bruce Lonngrenistockphoto.com; 132: tr. Giorgio Fochesato/istockphoto.com; 133: r. Alberto Pomares/istockphoto.com; 134: b. CORBIS; 134-136: border. Catherine Lane/istockphoto.com; 134: t. Carmen Martinez Banus/istockphoto.com; 135: Copyright © by Julia Alvarez. Reprinted by permission of Susan Bergholz Literary Services, NY. All Rights reserved.; 138: Getty Images; 139: b. Getty Images; 139: t. Robert Eric/CORBIS; 140: Getty Images; 143: © Lars Brinck; 145: Getty Images; 146: © Joseph Jean Rolland Dube; 147: Leah-Anne Thompson; 155: Flat Rock Playhouse, The State Theatre of North Carolina, You Theatre production of Alice’s Adventures In Wonderland; 159: © Alamy Images; 162: istockphoto.com; 176: Lynn Saville/Prentice Hall; 179: Prentice Hall;

GRADE 7 UNIT 2 161: b. CORBIS; 168-169: © Punchstock; 169: t. Brian Hagiwara/Brand X/CORBIS; 170: John Cancalosi/Stock, Boston/PictureQuest; 171: SW Productions/Getty Images; 172: © Punchstock; 173: © Punch-stock; 174: Louis Fox/Getty Images; 202: PEANUTS reprinted by permission of United Feature Syndicate, Inc.; 205-206: Michael Blann/Getty Images; 210: Jasper James/Getty Images; 212:Charles Eshelman/Getty Images; 212: Bkgrnd. iStockphoto.com; 212: b. iStockphoto.com; 213: Nubar Alexanian/CORBIS; 219: t. Prentice Hall; 219: b. Daniel J. Cox/CORBIS; 220: t. Dave G. Houser/CORBIS; 220: b. Daniel J. Cox/CORBIS; 221: Copyright © Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College 1995. All rights reserved. Peabody Museum - Harvard University. Pho-tograph by Hillel Burger.; 222: Pearson Education/PH School Division; 223: r. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 223: m. Jack Parsons/Omni-Photo Communications, Inc.; 223: l. Silver Burdett Ginn; 227: Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS; 228-229: Image 100/CORBIS; 229: Inset. Paolo Koch/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 231: image. 100/CORBIS; 234: © Joel Simon/Stone; 235: Ingram Publishing; 236: photographer/Animals Animals; 237: 238-244: border. istockphoto.com; 238:r. Dev/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 242-243: Gallo Images/CORBIS; 244: Mark Smith / Photo Researchers, Inc.; 244: Mark Smith/Photo Researchers, Inc; 251: Bettmann/CORBIS; 252: Reuters/CORBIS; 253: Reuters/CORBIS; 253: r. Bettmann/CORBIS; 254: Bettmann/CORBIS; 255: Getty Im-ages; 256: Bettmann/CORBIS; 259: b. Steve Sands/New York Newswire/CORBIS; 260: Simon Marcus/CORBIS; 261: Bettmann/CORBIS; 261-276:border. epa/CORBIS; 261: © Oleksiy Maksymenko/Alamy; 261-276: border. istockphoto.com; 262: Bob Sacha/CORBIS; 263: Lawrence Manning/CORBIS; 264: Courtesy of Amy Tan; 265: Bkgrnd. Lawrence Manning/CORBIS; 265: Inset. Photo by CBS Photo Archive/Getty Images; 267: Peter Daze-ley/zefa/CORBIS; 268: Charles E. Rotkin/CORBIS; 271: Rubberball/Superstock; 272: Newmann/CORBIS; 273: John Molloy/Getty Images; 275: Stockbyte/Getty Images; 284: Luxner News Inc.; 289: t. Courtesy of Gary Soto; 291: AP/Wide World Photos; 292: Caherine Ledner/Getty Images; 294: Macduff Everton/CORBIS; 301: tl. John Van Hasselt/CORBIS SYGMA; 301: tr. Erik Freeland/ CORBIS SABA; 301: br. Catherine Karnow/ CORBIS; 302: bl. David Grossman\The Image Works; 302: bm. Bernd Obermann/CORBIS; 303: bl. Arlene Gottfried\The Image Works; 303: tr. Ethel Wolvovitz\The Image Works; 303: br. Jeremy Horner/ CORBIS; 311: No Credit Nec-essary; 313: Hideki Fujii/Getty Images; 321: b. © David Madison 1997; 321: t. Photo Courtesy Suzie Dod Tho-mas; 322: Bkgrnd. Andrew Holbrooke/CORBIS; 322: Inset. Nice One Productions/CORBIS; 323: © 2004JupiterImages and its Licensors. All Rights Reserved.; 324: Nice One Productions/CORBIS; 325: Hans Neleman/Getty Images; 327: Nice One Productions/CORBIS; 328: © David Madison 1997; 329: © David Madison 1997; 331: Al Fuchs/NewSport/CORBIS; 339: t. Getty Images; 339: b. © Denis Scott/CORBIS; 340: t. © Denis Scott/CORBIS; 345: t. Prentice Hall; 345: b. Alex Mares-Manton; 345: Alex Mares-Manton; 345: frame. Jackie DesJarlais; 346: © Alinari Archives/CORBIS; 347: © B.S.P.I./CORBIS; 348: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 348: frame. Jackie DesJarlais; 349: © Michael Freeman/CORBIS; 350: r. © 1990 Terry Heffernan; 350: l. Topham/The Image Works; 352: © Redlink/CORBIS; 353: © Mark Peterson/CORBIS; 354: © Ryan Pyle/CORBIS; 355: r. © 1990 Terry Heffernan; 355: l. Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 355: r. Stockbyte; 369: David Young-Wolff/Getty Images, Inc.; 371: T David Young-Wolff/Photo Edit; 372: r. Thomas Northcut; 376: Nighthawks, 1942, Edward Hopper,oil on canvas, 84.1 x 152.4 cm., Friends of American Art Collection 1942.51. photograph © 1998, The Art Institute of Chicago. All Rights Reserved.; 378: © David Schmidt/Masterfile; 379: Michael Freeman/CORBIS; 381: Buddy Mays/CORBIS; 382: Dean Conger/CORBIS; 384: Michael Newman/PhotoEdit Inc.; 242-243: Gallo Im-ages/CORBIS;

GRADE 7 UNIT 3 407: Jeff Greenberg/PhotoEdit; 409: rm. © Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 410: PEANUTS reprinted by permission of United Feature Syndicate, Inc.; 410: m. PEANUTS reprinted by permission of United Feature Syn-dicate, Inc.; 413: The Night Watch, Rembrandt Harmensz, Courtesy of Rijksmuseum; 414-414: The Night Watch (detail), Rembrandt Harmensz, Courtesy of Rijksmuseum; 416: The Night Watch (detail), Rembrandt Harmensz, Courtesy of Rijksmuseum; 418: t. The Night Watch (detail), Rembrandt Harmensz, Courtesy of Rijksmuseum; 423: t. Photo Courtesy of Robert Zimmerman; 424: b. Space Adventures; 425: NASA / Photo Re-searchers, Inc.; 426: NASA/Johnson Spac e Center; 427: NASA; 431: t. Courtesy of Nancy Masterson Saka-moto; 443: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 446: Stephen Dunn/Staff/Getty Images; 446-447: t. Paul Souders/IPN Stock; 447: © Ancient Art and Architecture LTD / DanitaDelimont.com; 448: Werner Foreman/Topham/The Image Works; 451: b. TRI-STAR / THE KOBAL COLLECTION; 453: t. Supergirl Archives Volume 1 © 2001 DC Comics. All rights Researced. Used with Permission.; 453: bl. Reuters/CORBIS; 453: Bkgrnd. istockphoto.com/ rotofrank; 454: Medioimages/Photodisc; 463: Ted StreshinskyCORBIS; 464: Mark Peterson/CORBIS; 465: TL Fran Lapolla; 465 Fran Lapolla; 466: BL Fran Lapolla; 466: R Fran Lapolla; 469: b. Yvonne Hemsey/Getty Images; 472-473: Scott Camazine / Photo Researchers, Inc.; 473: tr. © Randy M. Ury/CORBIS; 474: © H. Armstrong Rob-erts/CORBIS; 475: Saturday Evening Post Cover, 1937, Illustrated by Frances Tipton Hunter, © 1937 SEPS: Licensed by Curtis Publishing Co., Indianapolis, IN; 477: Reprinted by permission of Don Congdon Associates, Inc. Copyright © 1982 by Russell Baker; 479: Reprinted by permission of Don Congdon Associates, Inc. Copy-right © 1982 by Russel Baker; 480: b. © 1931 SEPS: Licensed by Curtis Publishing, Indianpolis, IN. All rights reserved. www.curtispublishing.com Works by Norman Rockwell printed by permission of the Norman Rockwell Family Agency. Copyright (c) 2007 the Norman Rockwell Family Entities; 480: m. © 1939 SEPS: Licensed by Curtis Publishing, Indianapolis, IN. All rights reserved. www.curtispublishing.com Works by Norman Rockwell printed by permission of the Norman Rockwell Family Agency. Copyright (c) 2007 the Norman Rockwell Family Entities; 480: t Saturday Evening Post Cover, August 10, 1935, Illustrated by G. Brehm, © 1935 SEPS: Licensed by Curtis Publishing Co., Indianapolis, IN; 493: b. © Joseph Helfenberger/istockphoto.com; 494: Inset. © Owen Franken/CORBIS; 494: Bkgrnd. 496: © Joseph Helfenberger/istockphoto.com; 499: t. Globe Photos; 500: r. © Manfred Konrad/istockphoto.com; 500: l. © Andrey Volodin/istockphoto.com; 501: © PNC; 502: NASA; 509: t. Seth Resnick/CORBIS; 509: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 510: Cowboy lassoing cattle (gouache on paper), McBride, Angus (b.1931) / Private Collection, © Look and Learn/The Bridgeman Art Library; 511-514: border. © Pamela Moore/istockphoto.com; 512: istockphoto.com; 513: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 514: © Design Pics Inc. / Alamy; 517: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 520: bl. Copyright © DENNIS, DAVID M. / Animals Animals Enterprises; 520: t. Getty Images/National Geographic Creative; 522: b.523: Peter Arnold, Inc.; 531: rt. Breck P. Kent/Animals Animals; 531: rm. Zig Leszczynski/Animals Animals; 531: rb Zig Leszczynski/Animals Animals; 531: rm. Brian Kenney; 533: Bkgrnd. Brett Hillyardistockphoto.com; 537:Spencer; 538-539: © Eric Ho-ran; 540: b. © Ron Dahlquist; 540-541: Bkgrnd. © Tony Sweet; 551: Prentice Hall;

Grade 7 Unit 4 568: Studioleng/CORBIS; 574: CALVIN AND HOBBES © 1992 Watterson. Reprinted with per-mission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.; 577: Getty Images; 578-579: t. Wiewandt/Getty Images; 579: Richard Cummins/CORBIS; 580: Bob Krist/CORBIS; 585: t. photo. by James Evans; 585: m. Oscar/CORBIS; 586-587: Corey Hochachka / DesignPics; 588-589: Copyright © Phillip Colla, all rights reserved worldwide. History Photography; 590: © John Bunker / SuperStock; 593: t. © Jan Cobb; 593: b. Snark/Art Resource, NY; 594: Tony Sweet; 595: Rights and Permissions will add this to their acknowledgements; 596: tl. istockphoto.com/JinYoung Lee; 603: m. Patricia Allen-Wolk; 603: t. Courtesy of Detroit Free Press; 603: b. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 604-605: Steve Allen; 606-607: Roger Werth/Woodfin Camp & Associates; 608: The Newark Museum/Art Resource, NY; 611: t. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 611: m. Getty Images; 611: b. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 612: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY; 612: Lawrence, Jacob (1917-2000) © ARS, NY; 614: fine Art Photographic Library, London/Art Resource, NY; 616: © Morton Beebe/CORBIS; 624: Moodboard/CORBIS; 629: b. Courtesy of Gregory Djanikian; 629: t. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 630: © Herman Eisenbeiss/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 633: tl. The Exploits of a Highwayman (gouache on paper), After each of his hold-ups William Page seemed able to spirit himself away - until the next of his daring esca-pades; his run of success was halted in an attempted robbery on the Great North Road;, Doughty, C.L. (1913-85) / Private Collection, © Look and Learn / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 636: © Duomo/CORBIS; 649: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 649: gezette.de Buro fur Fotografie; 650: Illustration from “Where the Sidewalk Ends” © 1974 by Evil Eye Music, Inc. Used by permssion of HarperCollins Publishers; 651: Illustration from “Where the Sidewalk Ends” © 1974 by Evil Eye Music, Inc. Used by permssion of HarperCollins Publishers; 653: Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 657: t. William Shakespeare, (detail), attributed to John Taylor, by courtesy of the National Por-trait Gallery, London; 657: b. Photo by Bachrach. Used by permission of Marian Reiner; 657: b. Photo by Bachrach; 657: m. © G. Paul Bishop 1955; 658: © Gray Hardel/CORBIS; 659: W.A. Sharmann; Milepost 92 1/2/CORBIS; 667: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 667: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 667: m. William E. Stafford; 668-669: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 671: Getty Images; 672: t. Copyright (c) Stephen Dalton / Photo Researchers, Inc.; 675: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 675: b. © Nancy Crampton; 675: m. Time Life Pictures/Getty Im-ages; 676: You Are Old, Father William, 1865, Sir John Tenniel, The Granger Collection, New York; 678: © William Manning/CORBIS; 680: Pearson Education/PH School Division; 693: Courtesy of the Library of Con-gress; 693: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 694: La Bonne Aventure (Good Fortune),1939, René Magritte, Gouache on pa-per, 33.5 x 40.7 cm., Museum Boymans-Van Beuningen, Rotterdam, © 2000 C. Herscovici, Brussels/Artists Rights Sociey (ARS), New York; 696: © James Steidl/Shutterstock; 698: b. Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 544-545: t. © CORBIS. All Rights Reserved.;

Grade 7 Unit 5 723: t. Artville.com; 724: PEANUTS reprinted by permission of United Feature Syndicate, Inc.; 725: Terry W. Eggers/CORBIS; 727: Bettmann/CORBIS; 729-734: border. Gary Torrisi; 730: Terry W. Eg-gers/CORBIS; 731: Gary Torrisi; 732: Gary Torrisi; 732-733: Bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 732: Inset. istock-photo.com; 732: istockphoto.com; 733: Gary Torrisi; 734: Paul Van Reil/Robert Harding World Imagery; 734: Gary Torrisi; 735: Gary Torrisi; 739: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 739: b. Gary Braasch/CORBIS; 743: CBS/The Ko-bal Collection; 744: Charles Janasz as Bob Cratchit in the Guthrie Theatre’s 1992 production of A Christmas Carol adapted by Barbara Field. Photo credit: Michal Daniel.; 747: Jeffrey Coolidge/Getty Images; 748: Mary Evans Picture Library; 749: Bob Davis as Bob Cratchit, Kevin James Kelly as Charles Dickens and Richard Ooms as Ebneezer Scrooge in the Guthrie Theatre’s 1994 production of A Christmas Carol adapted by Barbara Field. Photo credit: Michal Daniel.; 751: Bob Davis as Bob Cratchit and Nathaniel Fuller in the Guthrie Theatre’s 1994 production of A Christmas Carol adapted by Barbara Field. Photo credit: Michal Daniel.; 755: © Michal Dan-iel, 2003; 759: David Buffington/Getty Images; 761: Getty Images; 763: © Michal Daniel, 2003; 766: © The Trus-tees of The British Museum; 777: Jim Baker as Ghost of Christmas Present in the Guthrie Theatre’s 1975 produc-tion of A Christmas Carol adapted by Barbara Field. Photo credit: Michal Daniel.; 781: © Michal Daniel, 2003; 783: The Guthrie Theatre; 784: David Toase/Getty Images; 787: Steve Lupton/CORBIS; 790: Photo © Michal Daniel, 2000; 795: The Cratchit family and Ebenezer Scrooge in the Guthrie Theatre’s 1994 production of A Christmas Carol adapted by Barbara Field.Photo credit: Michal Daniel.; 797: Gary Braasch/CORBIS; 800: mr. Photofest; 800: ml. Renown/The Kobal Collection; 800: l. Photofest; 800: bl. Photofest; 800: tl. Photofest; 803: Ebenezer Scrooge celebrating in the Guthrie Theatre’s 1994 production of A Christmas Carol adapted by Barbara Field. Photo credit: Michal Daniel.; 813: Photofest; 819: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 819: t. © Michal Daniel, 2003; 820: CBS/The Kobal Collection; 822: © Michal Daniel, 2003; 833: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 834: l. istockphoto.com; 834: l. istockphoto.com; 834: Bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 834: m. CNAC/MNAM/Dist. RÈunion des MusÈes Nationaux / Art Resource, NY; 835: tr. istockphoto.com; 838: Woman on telephone as seen through window, William Low, Courtesy of the artist.; 842: Over view of family walking dog on the street, William Low, Courtesy of the artist; 842: Over view of family walking dog on the street, (detail) William Low, Courtesy of the artist; 847: Streetlight, 1930, Constance Coleman Richardson, © Indianapolis Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. James W. Fesler; 848: Hans Wolf/Getty Images; 850: William Whitehurst/CORBIS; 855: tl. Getty Images; 855: tr. John Springer Collection/CORBIS; 855: bm. Photofest; 855: br. Photofest; 855: bl. Photofest; 867: b. Courtesy of Peg Kehret; 867: t. Sophie Bassouls/ CORBIS Sygma; 868: David Nieves/ Hudson Valley Aerial Photography; 870: Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 871: MusÈe Bartholdi, Colmar, reprod. C. Kempf”; 872: istockphoto.com/ Joshua Haviv; 874: Inset. Jose Luis Pelaez Inc /Getty Images; 874: Bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 876: istock-photo.com; 878: b. Charles Gupton/CORBIS; 999: b. © The Stock Market/Paul Loven; 1000: © The Stock Mar-ket/Paul Loven;

Grade 7 Unit 6 898: © Hyacinth Manning /SuperStock; 903: t. Courtesy of the Springville Museum of Art, Springville, Utah; 904: PEANUTS reprinted by permission of United Feature Syndicate, Inc.; 907: Rights and Permissions will add to their acknowledgement section; 907: b. istockphoto.com; 908-909: Rights and Permissions will add to their acknowledgement section; 915: t. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 917: Private Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 919: Mary Evans Picture Library; 924: bl. istockphoto.com/Nicholas Monu; 924: m. istockphoto.com/Stefan Klein; 924: bl. istockphoto.com/Christopher Steer; 924: b. istockphoto.com/James War-ren; 924: istockphoto.com; 925: bl. istockphoto.com/Lise Gagne; 925: br. istockphoto.com/Nicholas Monu; 925: t4. istockphoto.com; 925:tr. istockphoto.com/Clint Spencer; 926: bl. istockphoto.com/Mike Modine; 926-927: is-tockphoto.com/Ryan Burke; 927: rb. istockphoto.com/Nicholas Monu; 928: t. istockphoto.com/Marcin Pa-ko; 928: t. © Leeds Museums and Galleries (City Art Gallery) U.K.; 929: 2. The Granger Collection, New York; 929: 1. The Granger Collection, New York; 929: 5. The Granger Collection, New York; 929: 3. The Granger Collection, New York; 929: 9. The Granger Collection, New York; 929: 7. The Granger Collection, New York; 929: 10. Massimo Listri/CORBIS; 929: 6. Andrea Jemolo/CORBIS; 929: 4. Andrea Jemolo/CORBIS; 929: 8. Mimmo Jodice/CORBIS; 929: Bkgrnd. Paul A. Souders/CORBIS; 930: tl. ack-figure amphora depicting Demeter, Persephone and Apollo,/Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, Hungary, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 937: t. Educational and Professional Publishing.; 938: Charles & Josette Lenars/CORBIS; 940: The Art Archive / National Anthropo-logical Museum Mexico/Gianni Dagli Orti; 941- 942: The Art Archive / National Anthropological Museum Mexico / Gianni Dagli Orti; 945: t. By permission of Mrs. J.S.E. Farrell; 945: Ullses Ruiz/epa/CORBIS; 946: Daniel Aguiler/Reuters/CORBIS; 947: Werner Forman/CORBIS; 948: Private Collection/Bridgeman Art Library; 950: The Art Archive/ /Museo Franz Mayer Mexico/Gianni Dagli Orti/The Picture Desk, Inc.; 951: Museum fur Volkerkunde, Vienna, Austria/The Bridgeman Art Library; Nationality/copyright status: out of copyright; 952: © Charles & Josette Lenara/CORBIS; 953: Biblioteca Nacional de Mexico, Mexico/ Giraudon/The Bridgeman Art Library; 954: Ullses Ruiz/epa/CORBIS; 962: David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit; 967: t. 968: From Tales From The Odyssey Book #4: The Gray-Eyed Goddess by Mary Pope Osborne. Copyright (c) 2003 by Mary Pope Osborne. Reprinted by permission of Hyperion Books for Children. All rights reserved.; 991: b. AP/Wide World Photos; 991: t. © Bas-souls Sophie/CORBIS Sygma; 992:Darren Bennett/Animals Animals; 994: Ron Sanford/CORBIS; 995: bl. istock-photo.com; 999: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 1001: tm. The Granger Collection, New York; 1001: tl. Hul-ton Archive/Getty Images Inc.; 1001: m. Aaron Douglas, Into Bondage, 1936, 60 3/8 x 60 1/2, oil on canvas. In the collection of the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Museum Purchase and Partial Gift of Thurlow Tibbs Jr., The Evans-Tibbs Collection. 1996.9; 1001: tr. The Granger Collection, New York; 1001: bmr. Bett-mann/CORBIS; 1001: tmr. Bettmann/CORBIS; 1001: bml. Portrait of Langston Hughes (1902-1967) c. 1925, Wi-nold Reiss, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC,USA/Art Resource, NY; 1001: m. Aaron Douglas (1899-1979). Artist., 1953, Betsy Graves Reyneau, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution/Art Resource, NY; 1001: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 1009: t.Prentice Hall; 1009: tr. istockphoto.com; 1011: From The People Who Fly by Virginia Hamilton, illustrated by Leo and Diane Dillon. Illustrations copyright © 1985 by Leo and Diane Dillon. Reprinted by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.; 1013: tr. istockphoto.com/Sergey Surkov; 1017: © 1966 by Michael Courlander; 1018:Hans Christoph Kappel/Nature Picture Library; 1019: t. istock-photo.com; 1019: b. istockphoto.com; 1028: t. Buddy Mays/CORBIS; 1029: t. Ralph A. Clevenger/CORBIS; 1035: t. Copyright 2004 The Burlington Free Press/Peter Huoppi; 1035: b. Aesop, c. 1639-1640. Oil on canvas, Diego Rodriguez Velazquez, Scala/Art Resource, NY; 1040: b. Image Source/SuperStock; 1043: Prentice Hall

Staff Credits
The people who made up the Pearson Prentice Hall Literature team—representing design, editorial, editorial serv-ices, education technology, manufacturing and inventory planning, market research, marketing services, planning and budgeting, product planning, production services, project office, publishing processes, and rights and permis-sions—are listed below. Boldface type denotes the core team members. Tobey Antao, Margaret Antonini, Rosalyn Arcilla, Penny Baker, James Ryan Bannon, Stephan Barth, Tricia Battipede, Krista Baudo, Rachel Beckman, Julie Berger, Lawrence Berkowitz, Melissa Biezin, Suzanne Biron, Rick Blount, Marcela Boos, Betsy Bostwick, Kay Bosworth, Jeff Bradley, Andrea Brescia, Susan Brorein, Lois Brown, Pam Carey, Lisa Carrillo, Geoffrey Cassar, Patty Cavuoto, Doria Ceraso, Jennifer Ciccone, Jaime Cohen, Rebecca Cottingham, Joe Cucchiara, Jason Cuoco, Alan Dalgleish, Karen Edmonds, Irene Ehrmann, Stephen Eldridge, Amy Fleming, Dorothea Fox, Steve Frankel, Cindy Frederick, Philip Fried, Diane Fristachi, Phillip Gagler, Pamela Gallo, Husain Gatlin, Elaine Goldman, Elizabeth Good, John Guild, Phil Hadad, Patricia Hade, Monduane Harris, Brian Hawkes, Jennifer B. Heart, Martha Heller, John Hill, Beth Hyslip, Mary Jean Jones, Grace Kang, Nathan Kinney, Roxanne Knoll, Kate Krimsky, Monisha Kumar, Jill Kushner, Sue Langan, Melisa Leong, Susan Levine, Dave Liston, Mary Luthi, George Lychock, Gregory Lynch, Joan Mazzeo, San-dra McGloster, Salita Mehta, Eve Melnechuk, Kathleen Mercandetti, Artur Mkrtchyan, Karyn Mueller, Alison Muff, Christine Mulcahy, Kenneth Myett, Elizabeth Nemeth, Stefano Nese, Carrie O’Connor, April Okano, Kim Ortell, Sonia Pap, Raymond Parenteau, Dominique Pickens, Linda Punskovsky, Sheila Ramsay, Maureen Raymond, Mairead Reddin, Erin Rehill-Seker, Renee Roberts, Laura Ross, Bryan Salacki, Sharon Schultz, Jennifer Serra, Melissa Shustyk, Rose Sievers, Christy Singer, Yvonne Stecky, Cynthia Summers, Steve Thomas, Merle Uuesoo, Roberta Warshaw, Patricia Williams, Daniela Velez

Additional Credits
Lydie Bemba, Victoria Blades, Denise Data, Rachel Drice, Eleanor Kostyk, Jill Little, Loraine Machlin, Evan Marx, Marilyn McCarthy, Patrick O’Keefe, Shelia M. Smith, Lucia Tirondola, Laura Vivenzio, Linda Waldman, Angel Weyant

Grade 8

Photo Credits

Grade 8 Unit 1 11: r. Hulton Archive/Getty Images Inc.; 11: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 12: b. Wolf-gang Kaehler/CORBIS; 12: t. Lake County Museum/CORBIS; 12: b. AP/Wide World Photos; 15: Swim Ink/CORBIS; 16: Vintage Books; 18: The Ministries of Silence, 2000 (oil on canvas) by Bob Lescaux (b.1928) Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library. French/in copyright; 20: The Ministries of Silence, 2000 (oil on canvas) by Bob Lescaux (b.1928) Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library. French/in copyright; 22: Courtesy of Diane Alimena; 22: © David Fokos/CORBIS; 36: Tony Freeman/PhotoEdit; 41: Bett-mann/CORBIS; 41: b. Mary Evans Picture Library; 42: Inset. New York State Historical Association, Cooper-stown, New York; 46: Images.com/CORBIS; 48: l. Mary Evans Picture Library; 57: t. Courtesy Raul Sedillo; 57: b. “The Parker Family Collection, Fort Worth, TX”; 61: “The Parker Family Collection, Fort Worth, TX”; 65: t. Bett-mann/CORBIS; 68: Courtesy US Army Corp of Engineers; 69: The Champions of the Mississippi, Currier & Ives, Scala/Art Resource, New York; 83: © Charles E. Rotkin/CORBIS; 87: b. Courtesy of the author. Photo by Don Perkins.; 87: t. Jesse Stuart Foundation; 88: M.P. Kahl/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 88-93: border. istock-photo.com/; 90-91: border. istockphoto.com/; 92: National Geographic/Getty Images; 92-93: border. istock-photo.com/; 99: Portrait of a Mandarin, Chinese School, 19th century/The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 113: t. Rollie McKenna; 114: Joe Squillante/Photonica; 117: Edward Holub/Getty Images; 121: Hulton Ar-chive/Getty Images Inc.; 124: from The Complete Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, illustration by Sidney Paget; 127: from The Complete Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, illustration by Sidney Paget; 128: from The Complete Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, illustration by Sidney Paget; 130: from The Complete Adven-tures of Sherlock Holmes, illustration by Sidney Paget; 135: from The Complete Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, illustration by Sidney Paget; 138: from The Complete Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, illustration by Sidney Paget; 146: t. Tek Image/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 146: m. Getty Images; 146: r. © Leonard Lessin/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 149: from The Complete Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, illustration by Sidney Paget; 159: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 160: Connie Ricca/CORBIS; 161-168: border. Silver Burdett Ginn; 162: Bett-mann/CORBIS; 166-167: b. Morey Milbradt/Brand X/CORBIS; 167: t. Lake County Museum/CORBIS; 171: t. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 171: b. Reuters//Mannie Garcia/CORBIS; 172: b. Flip Schulke/CORBIS; 172: t. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 174: t. Joseph Sohm/Visions of America/CORBIS; 174: b. Michale Ventura/PhotoEdit; 175: Martin Takigawa/Getty Images, Inc.; 181: b. Thomas Victor; 183: Charles Krebs/CORBIS; 184: © Daryl Benson/Masterfile; 186: The Granger Collection, New York; 186: Prentice Hall; 187: Prentice Hall; 200: Drummer Boy, Julian Scott, N.S. Mayer; 202: Courtesy National Archives; 203: Inset. Bettmann/CORBIS; 204: David; 205: Bkgrnd. Jackie DesJariais/istockphoto.com; 205: The Granger Collection, New York; 206: Drum-mer Boy, Julian Scott, N.S. Mayer; 208: Index Stock Imagery, Inc.; 324: © 2001 Mitchell, C.E./Stockphoto.com; 325: 326: Steve Kraseman/DRK Photo

Grade 8 Unit 2 191: t. Courtesy of Ohio State Historical Society; 192: © Skip Dickstein/NewSport/CORBIS; 193: Farm Boy, 1941, Charles Alston, Courtesy of Clark Atlanta University; 196: Alan D. Carey/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 198: © Kevin R. Morris/CORBIS; 237: Franco Vogt/CORBIS; 241: Courtesy National Archives, photo no. (542390); 242: Myrleen Ferguson Cate/PhotoEdit; 247: t. Bassouls Sophie/CORBIS; 248: Bkgrnd. Bruce Stod-dard/Getty Images; 253: Franco Brambilla/Airstudio; 256: Dawid Michalczyk/Eon Works; 258: Franco Bram-billa/Airstudio; 263: NO CREDIT NECESSARY; 267: Enoshima. Island at left with cluster of buildings among trees. Fuji in distance at right, c. 1823. (detail), Katsusika Hokusai, The Newark Museum/Art Resource, NY; 271: br. Brown Brothers; 271: bl. Courtesy of State Museum Resource Center, California State Parks; 271: tr. Michael Moran/ © Dorling Kindersley; 271: tl. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 279: © 1998 James McGoon; 282: David Turnley/CORBIS; 283: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 283: t. Major Keith Hamilton Maxwell/The Mariners’ Mu-seum/CORBIS; 284: Jubayl, 1997 (oil on canvas) by Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library National-ity/copyright status: French/in copyright; 285: Pearson Education; 286: Image Source Black/Getty Images, Inc; 293: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 294: © Thomas Paschke / istockphoto.com; 294: Bkgrnd. © Ufuk Zivana / istock-photo.com; 294: border. © Blackred / istockphoto.com; 294: Inset. © Clint Spencer / istockphoto.com; 296: Culver Pictures, Inc.; 297: Culver Pictures, Inc.; 298: Inset. © Duncan Walker /istockphoto.com; 298: © Clint Spencer / istockphoto.com; 300: © Zmajdoo / istockphoto.com; 301: © Dylan Hewitt / istockphoto.com; 302: © Janne Ahvo / istockphoto.com; 309: Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 313: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 314: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 315: The Granger Collection, New York; 318: Paul Nicklen/National Geographic Image Collec-tion; 320: Paul Nicklen/National Geographic Image Collection; 335: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 345: Miriam Berkley/Authorpix 347: b. istockphoto.com/ GlobalP; 348-380: istockphoto.com/Sharon Shimoni; 350: m. © Dor-ling Kindersley; 350: br. © Dorling Kindersley; 350: tm. © Dorling Kindersley; 352: t. Tim Flach/Getty Images; 354: © Cinerama/Archive Photos; 355: Photofest; 358: Photofest; 364: Photofest; 371: Will & Deni McIn-tyre/Getty Images; 373: istockphoto.com/dra_schwartz; 378: Photofest; 387: t. New York Public Library, (Rare Book Division or Print Collection. Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs); Astor, Le-nox and Tilden Foundations; 387: b. Empire State, Tom Christopher, Courtesy of the artist.;388: Empire State, Tom Christopher, Courtesy of the artist.; 391: Minnie, 1930, William Johnson, National Museum of American Art, Washington, DC/Art Resource, NY; 395: t. E.O. Hoppe/Stringer/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 395: b. Stirling Station, 1887, William Kennedy, Collection of Andrew McIntosh Patrick, UK/The Bridgeman Art Library International Ltd., London/New York; 396: Stirling Station, 1887, William Kennedy, Collection of Andrew McIntosh Patrick, UK/The Bridgeman Art Library International Ltd., London/New York; 399: George Marks; 400: Pure Pleasure, Pat Scott/The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 401: istockphoto.com; 410: Cour-tesy of Amtrak; 411: Jumpstart for Young Children, Inc.; 412: © courtesy of City Harvest -http://www.cityharvest.org/; Photo by Timothy White; 415: b. Courtesy of the author; 415: AP/Wide World Pho-tos; 416: Girl in Car Window, Winson Trang, Courtesy of the artist; 420: Will Faller; 422: Arjan de Jager; 425: Matt Wilson/istockphoto.com; 426: Courtesy of Diane Alimena; 427: LOOK Die Bildagentur der Fotografen mbH/Alamy; 428: CORBIS; 430: Pamela Moore/istockphoto.com; 431: Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY; 433: © Marilyn Angel Wynn/Nativestock.com; 436-437: © The Stock Market/Tom Bean; 436: Pamela Moore/istockphoto.com

Grade 8 Unit 3 467: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA-JPL); 469: Spots on the Spot; 470: NASA; 472: bl. NASA/JPL; 477: t. © HOUSTON CHRONICLE; 477: b. Craig Barhorst; 478: Craig Barhorst; 479: Michael New-man/PhotoEdit; 481: Cultura/CORBIS; 482: Mike Ehrmann/Stringer/Getty Images, Inc.; 485: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 490: Louis Psihoyos; 492: Bettmann/CORBIS; 503: t. Courtesy Brent Ashabranner; 503: b. Paul Conk-lin/PhotoEdit; 504: Catherine Ursillo/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 506: Paul Conklin/PhotoEdit; 508: AP/Wide World Photos; 508: Catherine Ursillo/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 510: Richard Howard/Black Star; 513: t. Getty Images; 515: © FPG International LLC; 520: tr. © 2004 JupiterImages and its Licensors. All Rights Reserved.; 520: br. Pearson Education/PH School Division; 520: m. Pearson Education/PH School Division; 520: bl. Pearson Educa-tion/PH School Division; 520: tl. Pearson Education/PH School Division; 520: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 524: AP/Wide World Photos; 524: Tim Page/CORBIS; 531: Courtesy of the National Archives; 532: Courtesy of the National Archives; 535: tr. AP/Wide World Photos; 535: b. Photo © Markus Perry; 535: m. © Bill Thompson’s Eye on Books; 536: AP/Wide World Photos; 538: AP/Wide World Photos; 540: © jcarroll-images / is-tockphoto.com; 541: © Mike Bentley / istockphoto.com; 542: © Jim Zuckerman / CORBIS; 543: © Mike Bentley / istockphoto.com; 544: © Mike Bentley / istockphoto.com; 545: Getty Images; 546: © David Arky/CORBIS; 557: t. Robert Maass/CORBIS; 560: Jon Feingersh/CORBIS; 561: Bettmann/CORBIS; 561: Inset. The David Sarnoff Library; 565: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 566: AP/Wide World Photos; 575: t. Hulton Archive/Getty Im-ages Inc.; 575: br. © Don Hammond/Design Pics/CORBIS; 576: © Steven Georges/Press-Telegram/CORBIS; 578: Hulton Archive/Getty Images Inc.; 581: t. Miriam Berkley/Authorpix; 581: b. Credit: NASA / Science Source; 582: Credit: NASA / Photo Researchers, Inc.; 584: Frank Zullo/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 585: br. Credit: Space Telescope Science Institute / NASA / Photo Researchers, Inc.; 586: Credit: NASA / Science Source; 586-587: Credit: NASA / Photo Researchers, Inc.; 599: r. Photograph by Charles Osgood, Copyrighted 5/23/88, Chicago Tribune Company, All rights reserved. Used with permission; 593: istockphoto.com; 599: l. Miriam Berkley/Authorpix; 600: CORBIS; 600: Bkgrnd. Photodisc/Getty Images, Inc.; 602: Alexander Gra-ham/Bettmann/CORBIS; 605: Bettmann/CORBIS; 607: Lass/Archive Photos; 608: Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 610: Bettmann/CORBIS; 614: Pearson Education; 617: Courtesy of Andrew Mishkin

Grade 8 Unit 4 634: Parque/zefa/CORBIS; 639: t. © Images.com/CORBIS; 640: ‘BIG TOP’ 2003 Rob Harrell. Dist. By UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.; 643: r. Rights and Permissions will add this to their acknowledgements; 645: Playground, P.J. Crook/The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 647: t. © Hyacinth Manning / SuperStock; 653: t. Getty Images; 653 b. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Art and Artifacts Division, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations; 653: m. Hulton-Deutsch/CORBIS; 654: b. © Anthony Freda/Stock Illustration Source, Inc.; 658: A Summer Night on the Beach, Edvard Munch, © 2003 The Munch Museum/The Munch-Ellingsen Group/ Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris. , Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 658: t. © Photowood Inc./Photowood Inc./CORBIS; 661: b. Photo by Bachrach; 661: m. Bettmann/CORBIS; 661: t. © Jan Cobb; 662: © Martin Harvey /CORBIS; 664-665: Frans Lemmens/ Iconica/ Getty Images; 673: b. no credit necessary; 673: t. Photo courtesy of Lee & Low Books; 673: m. Bettmann/CORBIS; 674: Bruce Forster/Getty Images; 675: rt. © shutterstock, Inc.; 676-677: © Hansel Mieth//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 681: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 681: m. © Topham/The Image Works; 681: b. Mary Evans Picture Library; 682-683: © Jim Richardson/CORBIS; 683: tr. © Jonathan Blair/CORBIS; 684-685: © Ross Hamilton/Stone; 686: t. Pete Turner/Getty Images; 717: t. Photo-graphs are reprinted with permission from the publisher, Arte Publico Press; 717: b. SuperStock; 717: m. Cour-tesy of the Library of Congress; 718: El Pan Nuestro (Our Daily Bread), Ramon Frade, oil on canvas, 60 1/4" x 38 3/4", Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña, San Juan, Photo courtesy Squibb Galleries, New Jersey; 720: t. In Harriet Tubman I Helped Hundreds to Freedom, Elizabeth Catlett, Collection of Hampton University Museum, Hampton, Virginia; 723: t. © age fotostock / SuperStock; 727: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 727: b. CORBIS; 727: m. Bettmann/CORBIS; 728-729: © Charles O’Rear/CORBIS; 730: The Granger Collection, New York; 732: l. The Granger Collection, New York; 734: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 735: t. Bett-mann/CORBIS; 736: t. Stowe-Day Foundation, Hartford, CT; 743: t. CORBIS; 743: m. Bassouls Sophie/CORBIS; 743: b. AP/Wide World Photos; 744-745: t. The Magpie, 1869, Claude Monet, Reunion des MusÈes Nationaux/Art Resource, NY; 746-747: t. Wallowa Lake, Harley, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Williamsburg, VA; 748: Big Sister @2008 Jeffrey Gaddy, Collection of Dr. Patricia Walton; 751: b. Getty Images; 755: b. Photo by Catherine Ling Hinds; 755: m. Patricia Allen-Wolk; 755: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 756: Images.com/CORBIS; 758: r. Crawling Turtle II, Barry Wilson/SuperStock; 759: t. Woman with White Kerchief (Uygur), Painting by Lunda Hoyle Gill; 773: m. Eric Schaal/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 773: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 774: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 776: Bettmann/CORBIS; 777: b. Bettmann/CORBIS

Grade 8 Unit 5 800: Fotot-search.com; 815: Courtesy of Pensacola Little Theatre; 816: Courtesy of Pensacola Little Theatre; 817: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 818: Photofest; 820: b. Everett Collection; 822: l. Dallas and John Heaton/CORBIS; 823: br. Everett Collection; 853: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 854-855: Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 854: l. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amster-dam/Getty Images; 856: t. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 856-857: t. shutterstock, Inc.; 859: b. Copyright ANNE FRANK-Fonds, Basle/Switzerland; 861: t. © Ellen Land-Weber, to Save a Life: Stories of Holocaust Rescue, U. of Illinois Press, 2000; 866: b. Collection Jewish Histori-cal Museum, Amsterdam; 868: l. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Im-ages; 868: b. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 870: t. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 871: r. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 874: b. Copyright ANNE FRANK-Fonds, Ba-sle/Switzerland; 875: b. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 878: b. Copyright ANNE FRANK-Fonds, Ba-sle/Switzerland; 881: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 883: b. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 886: tl. © by Anne Frank-Fonds/Cosmopress, Geneve; 888: b. Bett-mann/CORBIS; 891: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 891: t. Michael Jenner/ Robert Harding World Imagery/ Getty Images; 892: b. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 898: b. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 900: Ralph Crane//Time Life Pic-tures/Getty Images); 907: r. Copyright ANNE FRANK-Fonds, Basle/Switzerland; 911: b. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 919: r. © Reuters/Corbis; 920: br. Copyright ANNE FRANK-Fonds, Basle/Switzerland; 926: t. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amster-dam/Getty Images; 931: t. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 933: t. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 937: tl. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 937: tr. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 942: b. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 947: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 947: bl. Bettmann/CORBIS; 949: r. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 952: t. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 954: t. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 955: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 956: t. Photo by Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 962: Bkgrnd. The Granger Collection, New York; 965: m. Getty Images; 966: m. © Reuters/ Corbis; 967: t. Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House/ Hulton Archive/ Getty Images; 972: l. Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House/ Hulton Archive/ Getty Images; 973: r. Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House/ Hulton Archive/ Getty Images; 974: l. Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House/ Hulton Archive/ Getty Images; 975: b. © Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amster-dam/Getty Images 975: tr. © Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 976: t. © Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 977: r. © Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House - Amsterdam/Getty Images; 978: t. Allard Bovenberg/Anne Frank Fonds - Basel/Anne Frank House/Hulton Archive/Getty Images; 979: b. AP/Wide World Photos

Grade 8 Unit 6 1012: m. Reprinted with the permission of Bob Thaves and the Cartoonist Group. All rights re-served.; 1015: t. Liu Liqun/CORBIS; 1016: © Qinetiq Ltd//Peter Arnold, Inc.; 1016: Bettmann/CORBIS; 1016: Pic-tureQuest/Stock Connection/Peter Samp; Georgina Bowater; 1016: Michael S. Yamashita/CORBIS; 1017: r. Kevin Schafer/CORBIS; 1018: b. China Span, LLC/CORBIS; 1020: b. © Rainer Holz/ zefa/ CORBIS; 1025: b. AP/Wide World Photos; 1025: t. © Bassouls Sophie/CORBIS Sygma; 1026: l. Cosmic Canine, John Nieto, Courtesy of the artist; 1027: Bob Rowan, Progressive Image/CORBIS; 1031: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 1032-1033: b. © Artkey/CORBIS; 1045: t. Irene Young; 1049: t. John Henry on the Right, Steam Drill on the Left, 1944-47, Palmer C. Hayden, Museum of African American Art; 1050: b. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 1051: t. He Laid Down his Hammer and Cried, 1944-47, Palmer C. Hayden, Museum of African American Art, Los Angeles, CA; 1051: border. artville/ getty images; 1055: m. Courtesy of the author; 1055: b. Time Life Pic-tures/Getty Images; 1055: t. Chuck Slade; 1056: t. Invitation to the Dance (el convite), Theodore Gentilz, Gift, Yanaguana Society in memory of Frederick C. Chabot, Daughters of the Republic of Texas Library; 1057: t. 1062: t. Lake County Museum/CORBIS; 1065: Random House Inc.; 1073: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 1073: t. Burstein Collection/CORBIS; 1073: m. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 1074: tl. Bett-mann/CORBIS; 1074-1075: t. © Anders Ryman/ CORBIS; 1077: Paul Bunyan, Rockwell Kent Gallery, Plattsburgh State Art Museum; 1078: t. Blank Archives/Getty Images; 1079: t. © Patrick Hattori/ epa/CORBIS; 1079: t. is-tockphoto.com; 1080: tl. James Randklev/ Photodisc/ Getty Images; 1080: tm. Andrea Salcioli/ Photodisc/ Getty Images; 1080: bl. Peter Adams/ Digital Vision/ Getty Images; 1080: tr. Connie Coleman/ Getty Images; 1080: ml. John Wang/ Photodisc/ Getty Images; 1080: m. © Fototeca Storica Nazionale/ Photodisc/ Getty Images; 1082: r. istockphoto.com; 1082: © David Muench/ CORBIS; 1083: tl. istockphoto.com; 1083: rm. istockphoto.com; 1083: tr. istockphoto.com; 1093: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 1093: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 1094: t. Courtesy Na-tional Archives; 1096: Getty Images; 1096: bm. Bettmann/CORBIS; 1096: br. Courtesy National Archives, photo no. (19425); 1096: bl. Bettmann/CORBIS; 1096: ml. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 1097: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 1099: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 1103: t. Prentice Hall; 1104-1105: Joseph McNally/Getty Images; 1104-1105: Felix Zaska/CORBIS; 1104-1105: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 1106: Blue Line Pictures; 1113: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 1114: © CORBIS; 1115: b. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 1116: b. Bett-mann/CORBIS; 1117: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 1118: t. © altrendo nature/ Getty Images; 1121: t. Bett-mann/CORBIS; 1122-1123: t. Art Resource, NY; 1125: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 1126: t. Bett-mann/CORBIS; 1128: tr. The Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond, Virginia, Photography by Katerine Wetzel; 1137: Bettmann/CORBIS; 1138: Frank Scherschel//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 1139: L Frank Scherschel//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 1139 : m. Frank Scherschel//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 1139: r. Frank Scherschel//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 1145: m. Cheron Bayna; 1145: b. © 1998 James McGoon; 1150: © Robert Fried; 1153: m. Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 1154: t. Tony Freeman/PhotoEdit; 1156: l. Es-bin/Anderson/Omni-Photo Communications, Inc.; 1159: t. Prentice Hall

Staff Credits
The people who made up the Pearson Prentice Hall Literature team—representing design, editorial, editorial serv-ices, education technology, manufacturing and inventory planning, market research, marketing services, planning and budgeting, product planning, production services, project office, publishing processes, and rights and permis-sions—are listed below. Boldface type denotes the core team members. Tobey Antao, Margaret Antonini, Rosalyn Arcilla, Penny Baker, James Ryan Bannon, Stephan Barth, Tricia Battipede, Krista Baudo, Rachel Beckman, Julie Berger, Lawrence Berkowitz, Melissa Biezin, Suzanne Biron, Rick Blount, Marcela Boos, Betsy Bostwick, Kay Bosworth, Jeff Bradley, Andrea Brescia, Susan Brorein, Lois Brown, Pam Carey, Lisa Carrillo, Geoffrey Cassar, Patty Cavuoto, Doria Ceraso, Jennifer Ciccone, Jaime Cohen, Rebecca Cottingham, Joe Cucchiara, Jason Cuoco, Alan Dalgleish, Karen Edmonds, Irene Ehrmann, Stephen Eldridge, Amy Fleming, Dorothea Fox, Steve Frankel, Cindy Frederick, Phil Fried, Diane Fristachi, Phillip Gagler, Pamela Gallo, Husain Gatlin, Elaine Goldman, Elizabeth Good, John Guild, Phil Hadad, Patricia Hade, Monduane Harris, Brian Hawkes, Jennifer B. Heart, Martha Heller, John Hill, Beth Hyslip, Mary Jean Jones, Grace Kang, Nathan Kinney, Roxanne Knoll, Kate Krimsky, Monisha Kumar, Jill Kushner, Sue Langan, Melisa Leong, Susan Levine, Dave Liston, Mary Luthi, George Lychock, Gregory Lynch, Joan Mazzeo, Sandra McGloster, Salita Mehta, Eve Melnechuk, Kathleen Mercandetti, Artur Mkrtchyan, Karyn Mueller, Alison Muff, Christine Mulcahy, Kenneth Myett, Elizabeth Nemeth, Stefano Nese, Carrie O’Connor, April Okano, Kim Ortell, Sonia Pap, Raymond Parenteau, Dominique Pickens, Linda Punskovsky, Sheila Ramsay, Maureen Raymond, Mairead Reddin, Erin Rehill-Seker, Renee Roberts, Laura Ross, Bryan Salacki, Sharon Schultz, Jennifer Serra, Melissa Shustyk, Rose Sievers, Christy Singer, Yvonne Stecky, Cynthia Summers, Steve Thomas, Merle Uuesoo, Roberta Warshaw, Patricia Williams, Daniela Velez

Additional Credits
Lydie Bemba, Victoria Blades, Denise Data, Rachel Drice, Eleanor Kostyk, Jill Little, Loraine Machlin, Evan Marx, Marilyn McCarthy, Patrick O’Keefe, Shelia M. Smith, Lucia Tirondola, Laura Vivenzio, Linda Waldman, Angel Weyant

Video Credits
Isaac Asimov : ©Douglas Kirkland/CORBIS; Amelia Earhart : © National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institute (SI 2004-41002)

Grade 9

Photo Credits

xii–xiii: Sean Davey/CORBIS; xiv–xv: Sean Davey/CORBIS; xvi–xvii: Images.com/CORBIS; xviii–xix: Images.com/CORBIS; xx–xxi: Images.com/CORBIS; xxii–xxiii: Images.com/CORBIS; xxvi–xxvii: © Di-ana Ong/SuperStock; xxviii–xxix: Nice One Productions/CORBIS; xxx–xxxi: Nice One Produc-tions/CORBIS;

Grade 9 Unit 1 1: © Catherine Cabrol/Kipa/CORBIS; 2: © Dave Cutler/Images.com; 3: © Johner/ Johner Images/ Getty Images; 5: Images.com/CORBIS; 6: CALVIN AND HOBBES © 1994 Watter-son. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.; 9: Alberto Giacometti, Man Pointing, 1947. Bronze, 70 1/2 x 40 3/4 x 16 3/8”. The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by Scala-Art Resource, NY. Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller 3rd. © 2004 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris.; 10: © Lisa Haney /Images.com; 12: Christooph Wil-helm/Getty Images; 13: © Bob Winsett/CORBIS; 15: Library, 2003 (acrylic on wood), Crook, P.J. (b. 1945) /Private Collection, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 17: Michael S. Lewis/CORBIS; 17: bkgrnd. Nick Belton/ istockphoto.com; 18: Maria Ferrari/SuperStock; 18–19: bkgrnd. Nick Belton/ istockphoto.com; 20: akg-images; 20: bkgrnd. Nick Belton/ istockphoto.com; 25: t. Robert Maass/CORBIS; 25: b. Lee Snider/CORBIS; 26: The Oldest Inhabitant, 1876, Julian Alden Weir, oil on canvas, 65 1/2 x 32” Signed, upper left. Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio; 26: bkgrnd. Lee Snider/CORBIS; 29: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 30: The Washerwomen, from the ‘Tableau de Paris’ series, engraved by C. Motte, c.1830–40 (colour litho), Delarue, Fortune (b. 1794) (after)/Musee de la Ville de Paris, Musee Carnavalet, Paris, France, Archives Charmet/The Bridgeman Art Library International; 31: Lee Snider/CORBIS; 32: The Oldest Inhabitant (detail), 1876, Julian Alden Weir, oil on canvas, 65 1/2 x 32” Signed, upper left. Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio; 35: t. Getty Images; 35: b. © Ashok Rodrigues/ istockphoto.com; 36: t. istockphoto.com; 36: b. © Ashok Rodrigues/ istock-photo.com; 37: CORBIS; 48: Royalty Free © Vladimir Piskunov/Dreamtime.com; 49: John He-seltine/ © Dorling Kindersley; 49: bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 50: Canberra Bicycle Museum and Re-source Centre, Australia; 52: © Dorling Kindersley; 54: Royalty Free/ PhotoDisc/ Getty Images; 55: tl. © Dorling Kindersley; 55: tr. istockphoto.com; 55: b. Canberra Bicycle Museum and Re-source Centre, Australia; 56: rt. istockphoto.com; 56: tl. Royalty Free/ C Squared Stu-dios/PhotoDisc/ Getty Images; 56: rb. istockphoto.com; 59: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 60–61: © Held Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library International; 62: istockphoto.com; 62–63: border. istock-photo.com; 64: RF Digital Vision/ Getty Images; 64–65: border. istockphoto.com; 66: t. istock-photo.com; 66: b. istockphoto.com; 67: l. © Holton Collection/SuperStock; 67: r. istock-photo.com; 68: l. istockphoto.com; 68: r. istockphoto.com; 75: Barnabas Kindersley/ © Dorling Kindersley; 76: © Foodfolio/ Image State/ Jupiter Images; 77: t. © GK Hart/Vikki Hart/ Getty Images; 77: b. © Peter Kubal/Photographers Direct; 78: t. © GK Hart/Vikki Hart/ Getty Images; 78: b. © C.Fleurent/ photocuisine/ CORBIS; 81: © Precious Ngcobo; 82–83: istockphoto.com; 84: istockphoto.com; 85: RF © Tim Jones/ Digital Vision/ Getty Images; 86: © Ron Giling/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 88: © Ron Giling/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 90: Barnabas Kindersley/ © Dorling Kinder-sley; 91: l. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 91: r. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 92: © Ron Giling/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 103: © Archive Photos; 104: Bettmann/CORBIS; 104: bkgrnd. is-tockphoto.com; 105: l. Art Rickerby/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images; 105: m. © CORBIS; 105: r. © Bettmann/ CORBIS; 106: tl. Audio Visual Archives at the John F. Kennedy Library; 106: tm. istockphoto.com; 106: tr. CORBIS Sygma; 106: m. Courtesy of The Peace Corps; 106: b. Bett-mann/CORBIS; 107: l. © Randy Faris/ CORBIS; 107: m. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 107: r. © Bettmann/ CORBIS; 108: t. Loretta Hostettler/istockphoto.com; 108: bl. Art Rickerby/ Time & Life Pic-tures/Getty Images; 108: bm. Bettmann/CORBIS; 108: br. © Wally McNamee/CORBIS; 109: l. Bett-mann/CORBIS; 109: m. Keystone/ Hulton Archive/ Getty images; 109: r. Lisa Svara/istockphoto.com; 110: istockphoto.com; 113: Copyright © by Julia Alvarez/Bill Eichner. Reprinted by permission of Susan Bergholz Literary Services, NY. All Rights reserved.; 114: t. istockphoto.com; 114: b. RF Terry Vine/Blend Images/Getty Images; 114–115: istockphoto.com; 116: RF Medioimages/Photodisc/Getty Images; 119: l. istockphoto.com; 119: r. RF George Marks/Retrofile/Getty Images; 120: RF Terry Vine/Blend Images/Getty Images; 127: CORBIS; 128–129: istockphoto.com; 129: istockphoto.com; 130: © Ufuk Zivana/ istockphoto.com; 131: l. RF Tetra Images/Getty Images; 131: r. RF Joshua Ets-Hokin/ PhotoDisc/Getty Images; 132: l. Hulton-Deutsch/CORBIS; 132: r. Comstock Select/CORBIS; 132: inset. RF Rubberball/ Getty Images; 133: RF Joshua Ets-Hokin/ PhotoDisc/Getty Images; 134: istockphoto.com; 137: t. AFP/Getty Images; 137: m. RF © Brownie Harris/CORBIS; 137: b. RF PhotoDisc/ Jules Frazier/ Getty Images; 138: Images.com/CORBIS; 139: RF © Tom Grill/ CORBIS; 140: istockphoto.com; 141: istockphoto.com; 142: Bettmann/CORBIS; 142–143: istockphoto.com; 145: Bettmann/CORBIS; 147: l. RF © Brownie Harris/ CORBIS; 147: r. RF PhotoDisc/ Jules Frazier/ Getty Images; 148: Images.com/CORBIS; 156: Cour-tesy of NJ Transit; 157: l. istockphoto.com; 157: r. istockphoto.com; 157: br. © Ted Streshin-sky/ CORBIS; 157: istockphoto.com; 157: t. courtesy of the Florida Railroad Museum; 157: t. Randy Mayes/ istockphoto.com; 158: mr. © NRM/SSPL/The Image Works; 158: br. © Wolfgang Kaehler/ CORBIS; 158: istockphoto.com; 158: mr. courtesy of SouthEastern Railway Museum; 158: b. courtesy of SouthEastern Railway Museum; 161: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 161: b. Photofest; 162: NASA; 164: t. NASA; 164: b. NASA; 165: © RF - ER Productions; 166: © RF - Natphotos/ DigitalVisions/ Getty Images; 167: © Momatiuk - Eastcott/ CORBIS; 168–169: © Ed Free-man/Stone/Getty Images; 175: Prentice Hall; 182: © Michael Newman/Photo Edit;

Grade 9 Unit 2 192–193: Sean Davey/ CORBIS; 194: Associated Press; 197: © Images.com/CORBIS; 198: www.CartoonStock.com; 199: 20th Century Fox/Photofest; 201: © David Forbert/SuperStock; 201: border. istockphoto.com; 202: © Andrew Gunners/ Digital Vision/ Getty Images; 206: Pearson Education/PH School Division; 208: Alan Carey/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 213: The New York Times; 221: Sovfoto/Eastfoto; 233: bkgrnd. Hulton Archive/Getty Images Inc.; 233: t. Getty Images; 233: m. The Imperial War Museum London; 233: b. Jane Burton/ © Dorling Kindersley; 239: Miriam Berkely/Authorpix; 240: Ralph Fasanella, “Sunday Afternoon - Stickball Game” (1953). 40 X 36, oil on canvas. Courtesy A.C.A. Galleries, N.Y.; 249: CORBIS; 252: Robert Harding World Imagery; 259: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 259: b. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 260: © Christie’s Images; 262: Hairdresser’s Window, 1907, John Sloan, oil on canvas, 1947.240, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Ct. The Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection Fund; 263: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 269: t. E.O. Hoppe/Stringer/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 269: b. © Ingram Publishing/SuperStock; 270–271: © Ghislain & Marie David de Lossy/ Getty Images; 272: © Mel Curtis/ Stockbyte/ Getty Images; 273: © PhotoAlto/Ale Ventura/ Getty Images; 274–275: © Ken Redding/CORBIS; 276: © In-gram Publishing/SuperStock; 285: istockphoto.com; 287: © Adam Woolfitt/CORBIS; 290: istock-photo.com; 291: t. © Nancy Crampton; 291: b. © Marilyn Silverstone /Magnum Photos; 295: Feast Day, San Juan Pueblo, 1921, William Penhallow Henderson, National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution; Given in Memory of Joshua C. Taylor/Art Resource, New York; 298–299: © Steve Allen/ TIB/ Getty images; 299: border. istockphoto.com; 300–301: border. istockphoto.com; 301: Sheldon Collins/CORBIS; 302: Historical Picture Archive/CORBIS; 302–303: border. istock-photo.com; 304: border. istockphoto.com; 315: © Gary Rhijnsburger/Masterfile; 316–317: Courtesy of Ryan Eastman; 318: © 1999, 2007 Kaihsu Tai; 321: © Gary Rhijnsburger/Masterfile; 322: Getty Images; 323: © Bob Krist/CORBIS; 325: Mary Grace Long /Asia Images/Getty Images; 326: Red Chop-sticks/ Getty Images; 328: David Muir/digital vision/Getty Images; 331: Time Life Pic-tures/Getty Images; 332–333: © SuperStock, Inc./SuperStock; 333: border. istockphoto.com; 333: istockphoto.com; 334–335: border. istockphoto.com; 337: © Christie’s Images/SuperStock; 338: © SuperStock, Inc./SuperStock; 349: Nikky Finney; 350: Elizabeth Catlett, American, born 1915, Sharecropper, 1952, printed 1970, Color linocut on cream Japanese paper, 450 x 431 mm (block); 544 x 513 mm (sheet), Restricted gift of Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. Hartman, 1992.182, The Art In-stitute of Chicago. Photography © The Art Institute of Chicago.; 353: The Vegetable Garden, Coombe, 1988, Riley, Paul (b. 1944) (Contemporary Artist)/Private Collection, © Chris Beetles, London, U.K./The Bridgeman Art Library International; 354: t. Frank Greenaway/ © Dorling Kinder-sley; 354: b. Jim Zipp/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 361: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 361: b. istock-photo.com; 362: Duchess in Defiance (oil on canvas), Parrish, Kevin (Contemporary Artist) Guild of Railway Artist/Private Collection,/The Bridgeman Art Library International; 364: © Corey Hochachka/Design Pics/CORBIS; 368: Foodpix; 369: North Wind Picture Archives; 370: istock-photo.com; 383: t. Photo Courtesy James Hurst; 383: b. Bassouls Sophie/CORBIS; 384: © Biosphoto/BIOS; Bios - Auteurs (droits geres); Huguet Pierre;/Peter Arnold Inc.; 384–385: © Panoramic Images/ Getty Images; 386: © Robin Chittenden; Frank Lane Picture Agency/CORBIS; 387: © Biosphoto/BIOS; Bios - Auteurs (droits geres); Huguet Pierre;/Peter Arnold Inc.; 389: Two Boys in a Punt, 1915 - Cover Illustration, Popular Magazine N.C. Wyeth (1882–1945) Oil on Can-vas, 37-1/2 x 26 1/2, Private Collection, Photography courtesy of Brandywine River Museum; 392: © GERARD LACZ/Animals Animals - Earth Scenes; 394: © Biosphoto/BIOS; Bios - Auteurs (droits geres); Huguet Pierre;/Peter Arnold Inc.; 396: Portrait of a Mandarin (w/c) by Chinese School (19th century) Stapleton Collection, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 398: border. istock-photo.com; 398: © Photographer:Rosmizan Abu Seman/ Agency: Dreamstime.com; 400: istock-photo.com; 402: © Pierre Tremblay/Masterfile; 405: Eric Cator; 410: Associated Press; 412: © Robert Recker/zefa/CORBIS; 422–423: Images.com/CORBIS;

Grade 9 Unit 3 428: PEANUTS reprinted by per-mission of United Feature Syndicate, Inc.; 429: © Ryan McVay/ PhotoDisc/ Getty Images; 431: tl. © aleksandar velasevic/ istockphoto.com; 431: t. © Luis Bellagamba/ istockphoto.com; 433: tr. © Manik Ratan/ istockphoto.com; 433: t. istockphoto.com; 434: © Brandon Laufenberg/ istock-photo.com; 434: t. istockphoto.com; 437: tr. istockphoto.com; 437: tr. © Alexander Yakovlev/ istockphoto.com; 437: t. istockphoto.com; 438: b. istockphoto.com; 438: b. © Sylwia Nowik/istockphoto.com; 443: Courtesy of the author; 444: © Prisma/SuperStock; 447: Tom Lea, Wood cutter and Burro (“El Lenador”), 1934, Oil on Canvas 29”x42”. on Long term loan to the New Mexico Museum of Art from the U.S. General Services Administration, Works Project Administra-tion. Photograph by Blair Clark (2833.23P); 448–449: border. istockphoto.com; 448–449: Three Reds, courtesy of Patrick Coffaro, Photography courtesy of Joan Cawley Licensing, Ltd.; 455: CORBIS; 467: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 467: m. NASA; 468–469: NASA; 470: istockphoto.com; 471: is-tockphoto.com; 472: © Dorling Kindersley; 473: istockphoto.com; 474: NASA; 477: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 477: b. Cartesia/ Photodisc/ Getty Images; 478: Cartesia/ Photodisc/ Getty Im-ages; 479: istockphoto.com; 480: t. istockphoto.com; 480: t. Cartesia/ Photodisc/ Getty Images; 482: t. istockphoto.com; 486: istockphoto.com; 495: border. © Josh Westrich/zefa/CORBIS; 495: r. NASA; 496: t. NASA; 496: border. © Josh Westrich/zefa/CORBIS; 499: b. Thomas Victor; 499: r. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 500–501: Courtesy of The Lincoln Museum, Fort Wayne, Indiana, (#983)- Lincoln Proclaiming Thanksgiving, Dean Cornwell; 502: Peculiarsome Abe, N.C. Wyeth, Courtesy of Children’s Literature Research Collection, The Free Library of Philadelphia, Pho-tography courtesy of the Brandywine River Museum; 505: Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 506: © CORBIS; 508: Focus on Sport/Getty Images; 509: istockphoto.com; 510: istockphoto.com; 521: t. Photo Courtesy of ABC Radio Networks; 521: b. Lambert/ Hulton Archive/ Getty Images; 522: © Mike Powell/CORBIS; 524: © Anthony Marsland/The Image Bank/ Getty Images; 526: Lam-bert/Hulton Archive/Getty Images; 529: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 529: b. © Prisma/SuperStock; 530: © Prisma/SuperStock; 532: © George Steinmetz/ CORBIS; 533: The Granger Collection, New York; 534: © Richard T. Nowitz/ CORBIS; 541: Bettmann/CORBIS; 542: Bettmann/CORBIS; 544: CORBIS; 545: © Flip Schulke/CORBIS; 547: © Bob Adelman/Magnum Photos; 551: t. CORBIS; 551: b. Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS; 552: CORBIS; 553: Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS; 554: Getty Im-ages; 555: Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS; 557: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 557: b. National Collection of Fine Arts, Washington, DC; 558: © Bettmann/ CORBIS; 560: © Bettmann/ CORBIS; 569: t. © Bettmann/ CORBIS; 569: b. © CORBIS; 570: © Bettmann/ CORBIS; 573: t. Courtesy of the Author. Photo by Carolyn Soto.; 573: m. © 1966 by Michael Courlander; 573: b. Courtesy of Archives of Traditional Music; 574: © Images.com/CORBIS; 577: t. Images.com; 578: l. istockphoto.com; 579: r. istockphoto.com; 580: r. istockphoto.com; 582: b. Jose Luiz Pelaez, Inc. /CORBIS; 585: Mar-ion Ettlinger; 602–603: Images.com/CORBIS;

Grade 9 Unit 4 605: © Colin Young-Wolff/Photo Edit; 607: © Images.com/CORBIS; 608: LUCKY COW © 2003 Mark Pett. Dist. By UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. Re-printed with permission. All rights reserved.; 609: © Bob Daemmrich/ PhotoEdit Inc.; 611: Paul & Lindamarie Ambrose/Getty Images; 612: Paul & Lindamarie Ambrose/Getty Images; 613: t. Photo courtesy of Pat Mora; 614: b. Photo courtesy of Pat Mora; 619: ml. Bettmann/CORBIS; 619: t. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 619: b. Getty Images; 619: akg-images; 620: t. Lawrence, Jacob (1917–2000), Street Shadows, 1959. Egg tempera on hardboard, 24 x 30”. © ARS, NY/ Photo cour-tesy of: The Jacob and Gwendolyn Lawrence Foundation/Art Resource, NY; 621: istockphoto.com; 622: akg-images; 624: t. Kathleen Brown/CORBIS; 625: t. Kathleen Brown/CORBIS; 626: © Ian Mckinnell/ Getty Images; 631: m. Hulton Archive/Getty Images Inc.; 631: b. Getty Images; 631: t. Roger Ressmeyer/CORBIS; 632: Charles O’Rear/CORBIS; 634: b. McDonald Wildlife Pho-tog./Animals Animals; 635: m. Reza Estakhrian/ Getty Images; 636: © Alamy Images; 645: m. Al-fred Lord Tennyson, © 1840, S. Laurence, by courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, London; 645: b. Oscar White/CORBIS; 645: t. Miriam Berkley/Authorpix; 646: b. Stewart Cohen/Digital Vision by Getty Images; 647: t. © Antar Dayal/Illustration Works/CORBIS; 648–649: © Lance Richbourg/SuperStock; 650: t. © Lance Richbourg/SuperStock; 653: m. Photo by Mandy Sayer; 653: t. Bettmann/ CORBIS; 653: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 654: The Bells of Rostov, 1983 (oil on canvas), Chepik, Sergei (b. 1953)/Private Collection, Roy Miles Fine Paintings/The Bridgeman Art Library International; 657: © Christie’s Images/SuperStock; 658: The Bells, Edmund Dulac, New York Pub-lic Library; Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations; 660: © Images.com/CORBIS; 662–663: Illustra-tions copyright © 1977 by Jane Breskin Zalben from Jabberwocky. Published by Caroline House, Boyds Mills Press, Inc. Reprinted by permission.; 664: Illustrations copyright © 1977 by Jane Breskin Zalben from Jabberwocky. Published by Caroline House, Boyds Mills Press, Inc. Reprinted by permission.; 671: tl. © Tetra Images/ CORBIS; 671: mi. Stockbyte/Alamy; 672: Michelangelo Gratton/ Photo Researchers, Inc.; 677: rm. Photo by Robert Pedley; Courtesy of Kitty Costello; 677: b. photo by James Evans; 677: mb. © Bill Barksdale/CORBIS; 677: mb. © Paul Buck/epa/CORBIS; 678: bl. SuperStock; 680: © Bill Barksdale/CORBIS; 682: © Paul Buck/epa/CORBIS; 695: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 695: m. AP/Wide World Photos; 695: b. AP/Wide World Photos; 696: The Granger Collection, New York; 699: © Cocoro Photos/CORBIS; 700: Reuters/CORBIS; 705: t. Mark Gerson Photography; 705: m. Oscar White/CORBIS; 705: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 707: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 708: © Flip De Nooyer/Foto Natura/Minden Pictures, Inc.; 709: © Fred Carol/CORBIS Sygma; 710: Aaron/Horowitz/CORBIS; 713: © Ed Reschke/Peter Arnold, Inc.; 723: t. Eric Schaal/Time Life Pic-tures/Getty Images; 723: m. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 723: b. The Granger Collec-tion, New York; 724: © The Stock Market/Alan Goldsmith; 728: Bubbles, watercolor, 39” x 29”, Courtesy of Scott Burdick; 731: t. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 731: m. SuperStock; 731: b. Eric Schaal/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 736: tl. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 736: tr. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 742: Photo courtesy of NASA, Ames Research Center; 743: © George Steinmetz/ CORBIS; 744: Sam Ogden/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 749: The Granger Collection, New York; 749: AP/Wide World Photos; 749: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 749: b. Su-perStock; 750: Ron Brown/SuperStock; 752: The Quiltmakers, Paul Goodnight, 22 11/16” x 24” Color Circle Art Publishing Inc.; 756: Jose Luiz Pelaez, Inc./Getty Images; 759: t. Cheron Bayna; 766: m. © Superstock; 766: b. © image100/ CORBIS; 776–777: © Diana Ong/SuperStock;

Grade 9 Unit 5 781: istockphoto.com; 782: IN THE BLEACHERS © 1999 Steve Moore. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.; 783: © Inti St Clair/ Digital Vision/ Getty Images; 785: Chris Bennion/Seattle Children’s Theatre; 787: Chris Bennion/Seattle Children’s Theatre; 789: tm. Michael Newman/PhotoEdit Inc.; 789: tr. Getty Images; 793: b. Chris Ben-nion/Seattle Children’s Theatre; 794: Chris Bennion/Seattle Children’s Theatre; 798: t. 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 798: b. © Michel Porro/ Getty Images; 799: © Andrea Pistolesi/ Getty Images; 802: l. SuperStock; 802: r. 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRIC; 805: t. 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 805: b. 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 806: border. istockphoto.com; 806: 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 810: Alinari/Art Resource, NY; 814: TM and Copyright © 20th Century Fox Film Corp. All rights reserved. Courtesy: Everett Collection; 823: TM and Copyright © 20th Century Fox Film Corp. All rights reserved. Courtesy: Everett Col-lection; 826: 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 827: 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 829: 20th Century Fox/Photofest; 834: 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 838: 20th Century Fox/Photofest; 841: 20th Century Fox/Photofest; 842: br. Michael Melford/Getty Images; 842: m. akg-images; 848: © Araldo de Luca/CORBIS; 851: TM and Copyright © 20th Century Fox Film Corp. All rights reserved. Courtesy: Everett Collection; 857: 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 862: 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 865: TM and Copyright © 20th Century Fox Film Corp. All rights reserved. Courtesy: Everett Collection; 866: TM and Copyright © 20th Century Fox Film Corp. All rights reserved. Courtesy: Everett Collection; 867: 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 872: Private Collecton/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 876: l. © Mary Evans Picture Library/The Image Works; 876: m. © Mary Evans Picture Li-brary/MARK FURNESS/The Image Works; 876: r. THE KOBAL COLLECTION/ Picture- Desk; 877: l. The Everett Collection; 877: m. © MGM/ Photofest; 877: r. © Paramount Pictures/ Photofest; 878: l. © ArenaPal/Topham/The Image Works; 878: m. © ArenaPal/Topham/The Image Works; 878: r. © Royal Shakespeare Theatre/Lebre/Lebrecht Music & Arts; 879: ml. © Tristram Kenton/Lebrecht Mu-sic/Lebrecht Music & Arts; 879: br. © Neale Osborne/Lebrecht Music &/Lebrecht Music & Arts; 879: bl. © Royal Shakespeare Theatre/Lebre/Lebrecht Music & Arts; 879: br. © Maremagnum/ Getty Images; 883: Rod Planck/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 889: 20th Century Fox/Photofest; 894: 20th Century Fox/Photofest; 902: 20th Century Fox/Photofest; 907: CORBIS; 909: TM and Copyright © 20th Century Fox Film Corp. All rights reserved. Courtesy: Everett Collection; 914: 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 916: TM and Copyright © 20th Century Fox Film Corp. All rights reserved. Courtesy: Everett Collection; 918: The Granger Collection, New York; 923: 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 924: 20TH CENTURY FOX/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/MORTON, MERRICK; 937: © Michael Maslan Historic Photographs/ CORBIS; 938: © Michael Maslan Historic Photographs/ CORBIS; 939: Rainer Jahns/drr.net; 939: © Dorling Kindersley; 940: t. PetePhipp/Travelshots.com/drr.net; 940: m. Dynamic Graphics/Jupiter Images; 940: b. Mel Lindstrom/Mira.com/drr.net; 945: t. Archivo Iconografico, S.A/CORBIS; 945: b. SuperStock; 946: Thisbe, John William Waterhouse/The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 946: bkgrnd. © Helmut Meyer zur Capellen/zefa/CORBIS; 948: Thisbe and the Lioness, from ‘The Children’s Hour: Stories from the Classics’, published by the Waverley Book Company (colour litho), Brock, Char-les Edmund (1870–1938)/Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library International; 949: © Helmut Meyer zur Capellen/zefa/CORBIS; 950: The Everett Collection, Inc; 951: istockphoto.com; 952: The Granger Collection, New York; 954: The Everett Collection, Inc.; 956: © CORBIS Sygma; 969: Bettmann/CORBIS; 970: Valmondois Sous La Neige, Maurice de Vlaminck, Superstock; 973: White Night, 1901, Edvard Munch, oil on canvas, 45 1/2 x 43 1/2 in. (115.5 x 111 cm) Photo: J. Lathion © Nasjonalgalleriet 1997, © 2003 The Munch Museum/The Munch-Ellingsen Group/Artists Rights Society (ARS), NY; 981: © noneAA/CORBIS; 987: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 987: b. Courtesy Henry Alford; 988: bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 988: The Everett Collection, Inc; 989: istockphoto.com; 990: Photofest; 993: Camera Press/Retna, LTD; 996: Photofest; 998: Photofest; 999: tr. CORBIS; 999: m. Lynton Gardiner/ © Dorling Kindersley, Courtesy of The American Museum of Natural His-tory; 999: rm. Colin Keates/ © Dorling Kindersley; 999: mi. Paul Van Reil/Robert Harding World Imagery; 1002: Kwame Zikomo/SuperStock; 1007: Prentice Hall; 1016: istockphoto.com; 1026–1027: Nice One Productions/CORBIS; 1030: istockphoto.com;

Grade 9 Unit 6 1031: © Gerald Bustamante/Stock Illustration Source, Inc.; 1032: CORNERED © 2004 Mike Baldwin. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.; 1037: Getty Images; 1038: Getty Images; 1043: Bettmann/CORBIS; 1043: l. © Kevin Fleming/CORBIS; 1043: bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 1043: bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 1044–1045: l. © Kevin Fleming/CORBIS; 1044–1045: bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 1046: Mary Evans Picture Library/EDWIN WALLACE/Everett Collection; 1055: Mary Evans Picture Library/EDWIN WALLACE/Everett Collection; 1058: Mary Evans Picture Library/EDWIN WALLACE/Everett Collection; 1061: Polyphemus, The Cyclop from Homer’s The Odyssey, N.C. Wyeth; 1066: Odysseus in the Land of the Dead from Homer’s The Odyssey, N.C. Wyeth, Brandywine River Museum; 1069: Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY; 1070: Circe Meanwhile Had Gone Her Ways..., 1924, William Russell Flint, Collection of the New York Public Library; Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations; 1075: Mary Evans Picture Library; 1080: © Stapleton Collection/CORBIS; 1089: © Kevin Fleming/ CORBIS; 1089: bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 1089: b. istockphoto.com; 1091: Eumaeus, the Swineherd from Homer’s The Odyssey, N.C. Wyeth, The Museum of Texas Tech Univer-sity; 1095: Scala/Art Resource, NY; 1096: © Araldo de Luca/CORBIS; 1099: Mary Evans Picture Library/EDWIN WALLACE/Everett Collection; 1102: The Trial of the Bow from Homer’s The Odyssey, N.C. Wyeth, Brandywine River Museum; 1104: Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 1106: The Slaughter of the Suitors from Homer’s The Odyssey, N.C. Wyeth, Licensed by ASaP Worldwide. Photo courtesy of the Archives of the American Illustrators Gallery, NYC. © Copyright 2000 Na-tional Museum of American Illustration, Newport, RI. www.americanillustration.org; 1113: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 1119: PARAMOUNT PICTURES/THE KOBAL COLLECTION; 1120: b. AP/Wide World Photos; 1120: bkgrnd. Frank Schwere/Getty Images; 1121: m. PARAMOUNT PICTURES/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/DUHAMEL, FRANCOIS; 1121: b. PARAMOUNT PICTURES/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/DUHAMEL, FRANCOIS; 1121: bkgrnd. Photo by Keystone/ J.Byrnes; 1121: tl. PARAMOUNT PICTURES/THE KOBAL COLLECTION; 1122: t. PARAMOUNT PICTURES/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/DUHAMEL, FRANCOIS; 1122: b. PARAMOUNT PICTURES/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/DUHAMEL, FRANCOIS; 1122: bkgrnd. Photo by Keystone/ J.Byrnes; 1127: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 1127: tl. © Bassouls Sophie/CORBIS Sygma; 1127: br. Getty Images; 1127: Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 1128: Penelope and the Suitors, 1912, J.M. Waterhouse, 51 1/2 x 75 in. (131 x 191 cm) City of Aberdeen Art Gallery and Museums Collections, Scotland; 1130: Herve Lewandowski/Reunion de Musees Nationaux/Art Resource; 1132: Perry Mastrovito/CORBIS; 1134–1135: John Miller/Robert Harding Picture Library/Alamy; 1139: Jason Lewis/ © Dorling Kindersley; 1147: t. © Agnew’s, London, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 1147: b. istockphoto.com; 1148–1149: Paul Hardy/CORBIS; 1149: inset. istockphoto.com; 1150: istockphoto.com; 1151: © Agnew’s, London, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 1153: istockphoto.com; 1154: istockphoto.com; 1156–1157: Denis Scott/CORBIS; 1159: istockphoto.com; 1160: istock-photo.com; 1165: t. Getty Images; 1165: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 1166: The Granger Collection, New York; 1168: The Granger Collection, New York; 1170: Simon Jauncey/Getty Images; 1171: The Granger Collection, New York; 1174: The Granger Collection, New York; 1175: The Granger Collection, New York; 1177: The Granger Collection, New York; 1179: The Granger Collec-tion, New York; 1180: The Granger Collection, New York; 1181: Historical Picture Ar-chive/CORBIS; 1183: The Granger Collection, New York; 1186: The Granger Collection, New York; 1195: Bettmann/CORBIS; 1196–1197: We the People, Kathy Morrow, Original scratchboard painting with hand-loomed beadwork, Courtesy of the artist; 1201: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 1201: b. © Tibor Bognar/CORBIS; 1202: l. © BRAUCHLI DAVID/CORBIS SYGMA; 1202: r. © Tibor Bognar/CORBIS; 1204: © Reuters/ CORBIS; 1209: AP/Wide World Photos; 1209: bkgrnd. AP/Wide World Photos; 1210: Photo File/ MLB Photos via Getty Images; 1210: bkgrnd. AP/Wide World Photos; 1211: t. Mary Evans Picture Library/The Image Works; 1211: b. Photo by Elaine Rosner; 1211: bkgrnd. Master-file (Royalty-Free Div.); 1212: Photo by Alberto Meza; 1212: b. Photo by Connie Herrera; 1212: bkgrnd. Masterfile (Royalty-Free Div.); 1217: t. Falls Village-Canaan Historical Society; 1217: b. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 1218: Illustration by Tim Raglin; 1220–1221: border. is-tockphoto.com; 1222: Jim Zuckerman/CORBIS; 1224: Franck Fotos/Alamy; 1225: Andromeda Liberated, Pierre Mignard, Louvre, Paris, France, Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 1227: Danae with young Perseus arriving on the island of Seripo, Museo Archeologico, Ferrara, Italy. Scala/Art Re-source, NY; 1228: Scala/Art Resource, NY; 1231: Perseus and Andromeda (detail), Ca.1580, Paolo Veronese, Musee des Beaux-Arts, Rennes, France, Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 1234: Jose Luiz Pelaez, Inc. /CORBIS; 1237: Getty Images

Staff Credits
The people who made up the Pearson Prentice Hall Literature team—representing design, edito-rial, editorial services, education technology, manufacturing and inventory planning, market research, marketing services, planning and budgeting, product planning, production services, project office, publishing processes, and rights and permissions—are listed below. Boldface type denotes the core team members. Tobey Antao, Margaret Antonini, Rosalyn Arcilla, Penny Baker, James Ryan Bannon, Stephan Barth, Tricia Battipede, Krista Baudo, Rachel Beckman, Julie Berger, Lawrence Berkowitz, Melissa Biezin, Suzanne Biron, Rick Blount, Marcela Boos, Betsy Bostwick, Kay Bosworth, Jeff Bradley, Andrea Brescia, Susan Brorein, Lois Brown, Pam Carey, Lisa Carrillo, Geoffrey Cassar, Patty Cavuoto, Doria Ceraso, Jennifer Ciccone, Jaime Cohen, Rebecca Cottingham, Joe Cucchiara, Jason Cuoco, Alan Dalgleish, Karen Edmonds, Irene Ehrmann, Stephen Eldridge, Amy Fleming, Dorothea Fox, Steve Frankel, Cindy Frederick, Philip Fried, Diane Fristachi, Phillip Gagler, Pamela Gallo, Husain Gatlin, Elaine Goldman, Elizabeth Good, John Guild, Phil Hadad, Patricia Hade, Monduane Harris, Brian Hawkes, Jennifer B. Heart, Martha Heller, John Hill, Beth Hyslip, Mary Jean Jones, Grace Kang, Nathan Kinney, Roxanne Knoll, Kate Krimsky, Monisha Kumar, Jill Kushner, Sue Langan, Melisa Leong, Susan Levine, Dave Liston, Mary Luthi, George Lychock, Greg-ory Lynch, Joan Mazzeo, Sandra McGloster, Eve Melnechuk, Kathleen Mercandetti, Salita Metha, Artur Mkrtchyan, Karyn Mueller, Alison Muff, Christine Mulcahy, Kenneth Myett, Elizabeth Ne-meth, Stefano Nese, Carrie O’Connor, April Okano, Kim Ortell, Sonia Pap, Raymond Parenteau, Dominique Pickens, Linda Punskovsky, Sheila Ramsay, Maureen Raymond, Mairead Reddin, Erin Rehill-Seker, Renée Roberts, Laura Ross, Bryan Salacki, Sharon Schultz, Jennifer Serra, Melissa Shustyk, Rose Sievers, Christy Singer, Yvonne Stecky, Cynthia Summers, Steve Thomas, Merle Uuesoo, Roberta Warshaw, Patricia Williams, Daniela Velez

Additional Credits
Lydie Bemba, Victoria Blades, Denise Data, Rachel Drice, Eleanor Kostyk, Jill Little, Loraine Machlin, Evan Marx, Marilyn McCarthy, Patrick O’Keefe, Shelia M. Smith, Lucia Tirondola, Laura Vivenzio, Linda Waldman, Angel Weyant

Grade 10

Photo Credits

viii–ix: © James O’Mara/Taxi/Getty Images; x–xi: © James O’Mara/Taxi/Getty Images; xii–xiii: Flying Colours Ltd./Digital Vision/Getty Images, Inc.; xiv–xv: Flying Colours Ltd./Digital Vision/Getty Images, Inc.; xx–xxi: © Neil Brennan/Canopy Illustration/Veer; xxii–xxiii: © Neil Brennan/Canopy lllustration/Veer; xxiv–xxv: Ron Sanford/CORBIS; xxvi–xxvii: Ron Sanford/CORBIS; xxviii–xxix: Masterfile; xxx–xxxi: Masterfile;

Grade 10 Unit 1 1: © James O’Mara/Taxi/Getty Images; 2: © Alexandra Day/CORBIS; 3: StockTrek/Getty Images; 5: Brand X Pictures/Getty Images; 6: Speed Bump © 2003 Dave Coverly. Reprinted with the permission of Dave Coverly and the Cartoonist Group. All rights reserved; 7: © Bob Krist/CORBIS; 9: Detail of Head of a Young Woman, Jan Vermeer, Francis G. Mayer/CORBIS; 10: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 12: The Allegory of the Art of Painting, c. 1670, Jan Vermeer, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna/CORBIS; 15: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 16: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 21: t. Getty Images; 21: t. © Dorling Kindersley; 21: t. © Dorling Kindersley; 21: m. © Dorling Kindersley; 23: b. Courtesy of Susan Vreeland; 24: t. Images.com/CORBIS; 26: b. Hulton Archive/Getty Images Inc.; 26: bl. © Dorling Kindersley; 26: bm. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 26: br. Giraudon//The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 26: br. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 26: b. © Dorling Kindersley; 31: b. © Alen MacWeeney/CORBIS; 31: tr. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 32: © Alen MacWeeney/CORBIS; 32: m. © Sebastian Derungs/Reuters/CORBIS; 33: istockphoto.com; 34: Frederick Ayer III /Photo Researchers, Inc.; 35: © Gregg Roth/Gregg Roth Studios/Sculpture by Andrew Leman; 36–37: border. © Alen MacWeeney/CORBIS; 37: Pamela Hodson/istockphoto.com; 38–39: border. © Alen MacWeeney/CORBIS; 40: istockphoto.com; 40–41: border. © Alen MacWeeney/CORBIS; 42: border. © Alen MacWeeney/CORBIS; 42: tl. istockphoto.com/Nathan Cox; 45: © Thomas Victor; 61: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 61: b. © Fergus Greer/Fergus Greer Studio; 62: © Patrik Giardino/CORBIS; 64: © bülent gültek/istockphoto.com; 66–67: © Patrik Giardino/CORBIS; 68: © Ty Milford/Aurora/Getty Images; 69: Galen Rowell/CORBIS; 70: Geoff Renner/Robert Harding World Imagery; 78–79: © Kit Kittle/CORBIS; 72: © bülent gültek/istockphoto.com; 73: © Keren Su/Digital Vision /Getty Images; 77: Mansell/Mansell/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images; 77: tl. Getty Images; 80: Courtesy of the Market Street Railway, San Francisco; 80–81: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 82: Slim Aarons/Hulton Archive/Getty Images; 92: Maps.com; 97: mr. CORBIS; 97: bl. AP/Wide World Photos; 98: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 101: AP/Wide World Photos; 102: Department of the Interior; 104–105: Gina Martin/National Geographic/Getty Images; 105: br. Linda Whitwam/Dorling Kindersley/Getty Images; 106: © Macduff Everton/CORBIS; 137: t. Colin McPherson/CORBIS; 137: b. Nancy Sheehan/PhotoEdit; 138: bl. © Kamal Kishore/Reuters/CORBIS; 138–139: istockphoto.com; 141: © ADNAN ABIDI/Reuters/CORBIS; 142: © Photographer: Paul Butchard | Agency: Dreamstime.com; 143: Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 145: Chase Swift/CORBIS; 146–147: Nancy Sheehan/PhotoEdit; 155: Photofest; 155: b. © Peter Adams/JAI/CORBIS; 156–157: © Atlantide Phototravel/CORBIS; 158–159: © Brandon D. Cole/CORBIS; 161: © George D. Lepp/CORBIS; 162: © Riccardo Spila/Grand Tour/CORBIS; 163: © Arthur Morris/CORBIS; 167: ml. Courtesy of Jay Burreson; 167: tl. Courtesy Penny Le Couteur; 167: tl. RF © Slavoljub Pantelic/istockphoto.com; 168: tl. RF © Slavoljub Pantelic/istockphoto.com; 168: tl. istockphoto.com; 169: As for Resolution (oil on canvas), Brooks, Robin /Private Collection, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 170: b. © Mike Kowalski/Illustration Works/CORBIS; 170: bl. © Stefano Bianchetti/CORBIS; 172: FoodCollection/Superstock; 174: t. James Cook (1728–79) from Gallery of Portraits, published 1833 (engraving) (later colouration), English School, (19th century) /Private Collection, Ken Welsh /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 176: Steve Gorton © Dorling Kindersley; 183: t. Barnabas Kindersley/ © Dorling Kindersley; 183: b. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 184: Barnabas Kindersley/ © Dorling Kindersley; 186: tl. © courtesy of the Hierakonpolis Expedition - Renee Friedman; 186: tr. istockphoto.com; 186: m. Ivor Kerslake/The British Museum/ © Dorling Kindersley; 186: b. © courtesy of the Hierakonpolis Expedition - Renee Friedman; 189: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 189: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 190: istockphoto.com; 191: istockphoto.com; 192: © John Foxx/Stockbyte/Getty Images; 193: © John Reader/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 194: © John Foxx /Stockbyte/Getty Images; 195: Through a Window, 1922, Farmer, Walter (1887–1947) /Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library International; 196: © Christie’s Images; 198: THOMAS D. MCAVOY/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images; 200: David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit Inc.; 203: Prentice Hall; 208: © Alexandra Day/CORBIS; 210: © Bonnie Kamin/PhotoEdit Inc.;

Grade 10 Unit 2 220–221: Flying Colours Ltd./Digital Vision/Getty Images, Inc.; 222: © Stefano Bianchetti/CORBIS; 223: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 225: Mark Shaver/images.com; 226: © The New Yorker Collection 1999 David Sipress from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.; 227: © Jim West/Photo Edit; 241: t. Carl Van Vechten, photographer, Permission Van Vechten Trust; 241: b. Young Man in Blue Suit, Alice Kent Stoddard /SuperStock; 242: Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C. /Art Resource, NY; 245: Young Man in Blue Suit, Alice Kent Stoddard /SuperStock; 246: Haystack, 1938 (tempera with oil glaze on linen on panel), Benton, Thomas Hart (1889–1975) /Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, USA, © DACS /Gift of Mr. Frank J. Hevrdejs /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 249: Stock Montage, Inc.; 255: t. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 255: b. © José Fuste Raga/Age Fotostock; 256: Private Collection, Roy Miles Fine Paintings /The Bridgeman Art Library; 258: Lebrecht Music & Arts; 261: Candelabra, 2003 (oil on canvas), Ireland, William (Contemporary Artist) /Private Collection, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 263: © SuperStock, Inc. /SuperStock; 271: Reina Xochtl (gouache on newspaper) by Alfredo Ramos Martinez (1872–1946); 272: Dance in Tehuantepec, 1935, Diego Rivera, Los Angeles Museum of Art, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Milton W. Lipper, from the Milton W. Lipper Estate. Photograph © 2003 Museum Associates/LACMA. © Banco de Mexico Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo Museums Trust Av. Cinco de Mayo No. 2, Col. Centro, Del. Cuauhtemoc 06059, Mexico, D.F. Reproduction authorized by the Instituto Nacional de Belles Artes y Literatura; 275: Images.com/CORBIS; 277: John Newcomb/SuperStock; 279: Reina Xochtl (gouache on newspaper) by Alfredo Ramos Martinez (1872–1946); 283: t. Thomas Victor; 283: b. The Body of a House #5 of 8. © Robert Beckmann 1993, oil on canvas, 69” x 96 1/2”. Collection; Nevada Museum of Art, Reno. Photo by Tony Scodwell; 285: The Body of a House #1 of 8. © Robert Beckmann 1993, oil on canvas, 69” x 96 1/2”. Collection; Nevada Museum of Art, Reno. Photo by Tony Scodwell; 286: The Body of a House #2 of 8. © Robert Beckmann 1993, oil on canvas, 69” x 96 1/2”. Collection; Nevada Museum of Art, Reno. Photo by Tony Scodwell; 289: The Body of a House #4 of 8. © Robert Beckmann 1993, oil on canvas, 69” x 96 1/2”. Collection; Nevada Museum of Art, Reno. Photo by Tony Scodwell; 291: The Body of a House #5 of 8. © Robert Beckmann 1993, oil on canvas, 69” x 96 1/2”. Collection; Nevada Museum of Art, Reno. Photo by Tony Scodwell; 299: tl. W. Kenneth Hamblin; 299: tr. PhotoDisc, Inc./Getty Images; 299: b. W. Kenneth Hamblin; 299: bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 300: istockphoto.com; 307: t. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 307: b. AP/Wide World Photos; 308: CORBIS; 312: Don Mason/CORBIS; 314–315: © David Tipling /Alamy; 317: Sydney Harbour Bridge, 1995 (oil on canvas), Blackall, Ted (Contemporary Artist) /Private Collection, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 318: © Marshall Arisman; 320: © Marshall Arisman; 322: © Christel Tranberg/Getty Images; 324: Tudor City at night, Overlooking East River, 1998 (oil on canvas), Gibbs, Nicholas (Contemporary Artist) /Private Collection, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 337: t. L. N. Tolstoi, I. E. Repin, Sovfoto/Eastfoto; 337: b. Scala /Art Resource, NY; 338: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 340: The Toast, G.K. Totybadse, Scala/Art Resource, NY; 342: Tate, London /Art Resource, NY; 345: Scala /Art Resource, NY; 346: Scala /Art Resource, NY; 350: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 353: © SuperStock, Inc. /SuperStock; 357: AP/Wide World Photos; 357: Campbell William/CORBIS; 358: Betty Press/Woodfin Camp & Associates; 360: © The Stock Market/John Curtis; 363: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 371: t. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 371: b. © Stefan Grambart; 372: © Stefan Grambart; 375: © Stefan Grambart; 376: © Stefan Grambart; 379: © Stefan Grambart; 380: © Stefan Grambart; 383: t. © Ulf Andersen/Getty Images; 383: b. istockphoto.com; 384: Frank Siteman/Stock, Boston; 386: Jane Burton © Dorling Kindersley; 387: M.C. Escher’s Relativity. Copyright © 2004 The M.C. Escher Company-Baarn-Holland. All rights reserved.; 389: © Russell Illig/PhotoDisc/Getty Images; 392: istockphoto.com; 395: Ingram Publishing /SuperStock; 396: istockphoto.com; 403: David Turnley/CORBIS; 404: Alexandra Avakian/Getty Images; 405: AP/Wide World Photos; 406: © Bernard Bisson & Thierry Orban/Sygma/CORBIS; 405–406: istockphoto.com; 409: t. Diaz-Piferrer; 409: b. Cheron Bayna; 410: © Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C./Art Resource; 411: Man Writing, 2004 (oil on canvas) by Ruth Addinall (Contemporary Artist), Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library; 412: © Patti Mollica /SuperStock; 414: bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 414: bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 414: m. istockphoto.com; 414: r. istockphoto.com; 414: tl. istockphoto.com; 414: tr. istockphoto.com; 416: © Bob Daemmrich; 416–417: © Felicia Martinez /Photo Edit; 420: Will Hart/PhotoEdit Inc.; 423: Prentice Hall; 430: © Mike Booth /Alamy;

Grade 10 Unit 3 442: © Ian Shaw /Alamy; 443: © JAUBERT BERNARD /Alamy; 445: © Images.com/CORBIS; 446: PEANUTS © United Feature Syndicate, Inc.; 447: © Michael Newman /Photo Edit; 449: Getty Images; 450–451: Courtesy of Didrik Johnck; 453: Courtesy of Didrik Johnck; 454: Courtesy of Didrik Johnck; 456: Courtesy of Didrik Johnck; 463: Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 463: Brian P. Kenney/Animals Animals; 464: Brian P. Kenney/Animals Animals; 465: © Minden Pictures, Inc.; 467: © Dorling Kindersley; 468: Getty Images; 469: © OSF/M. Fogden/Animals Animals; 470: © Geoff Dann/Dorling Kindersley; 473: t. AP/Wide World Photos; 473: b. istockphoto.com; 474–475: © Mike Agliolo/CORBIS; 475: istockphoto.com; 476: Les Stone/CORBIS; 479: As for Resolution (oil on canvas), Brooks, Robin (Contemporary Artist) /Private Collection, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 480: Portrait of George III in his Coronation Robes (1738–1820), © 1760 (oil on canvas), Ramsay, Allan (1713–1784) /Private Collection, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 481: l. The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 481: r. The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 482: istockphoto.com; 489: AP/Wide World Photos; 490: © Connie Hayes /Images.com; 493: © Colin Bootman/Bridgeman Art Library/Getty Images; 495: © Connie Hayes /Images.com; 499: Courtesy of the author; 500: © Alberto Ruggieri/Illustration Works/CORBIS; 503: l. Vic Bider/PhotoEdit; 503: r. Michael Newman/PhotoEdit; 504: © Paul Vismara /Images.com; 515: Nick Koudis/Getty Images; 516: Nick Koudis/Getty Images; 519: t. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 519: b. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 520: istockphoto.com; 521: l. istockphoto.com; 521: m. istockphoto.com; 521: r. istockphoto.com; 522: istockphoto.com; 525: My Life and Hard Times Copyright © 1933 by James Thurber. Copyright © renewed 1961 by James Thurber. Reprinted by arrangement with Rosemary A. Thurber and The Barbara Hogenson Agency.; 528: My Life and Hard Times Copyright © 1933 by James Thurber. Copyright © renewed 1961 by James Thurber. Reprinted by arrangement with Rosemary A. Thurber and The Barbara Hogenson Agency.; 541: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 542: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 543: © CORBIS; 544: © Alain Nogues/CORBIS SYGMA; 547: t. © Lesegretain/CORBIS Sygma; 547: b. Jacques Langevin/CORBIS SYGMA; 548: t. Jacques Langevin/CORBIS SYGMA; 548: bl. Penguin Signet Classics; 548: br. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 550: t. Dean Conger/CORBIS; 550: b. Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 551: Hulton Archive/Getty Images Inc.; 559: t. Carl Mydans/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 559: b. istockphoto.com; 560: istockphoto.com; 561: istockphoto.com; 562: © SuperStock, Inc. /SuperStock; 563: l. Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) (colour litho), Peale, Rembrandt (1778–1860) /Private Collection, Peter Newark American Pictures / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 563: r. John Adams (oil on canvas), Otis, Bass (1784–1861) (attr.to) / © Collection of the New-York Historical Society, USA, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 568: Image copyright © The Metropolitan Museum of Art /Art Resource, NY; 571: Photograph © 2008 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. All Rights Reserved.; 572: Self Portrait (oil on canvas), Degas, Edgar (1834–1917) /Private Collection, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 581: t. Ted Foxx/Alamy; 581: b. David McNew/Getty Images; 582: Ted Foxx/Alamy; 585: Thomas Victor; 586: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 586–587: istockphoto.com; 588–589: istockphoto.com; 589: © CORBIS; 590–591: istockphoto.com; 591: © Zen Shui /SuperStock; 592: © Seattle Post-Intelligencer Collection; Museum of History and Industry /CORBIS; 592–593: border. istockphoto.com; 593: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 594: istockphoto.com; 595: © Stapleton Collection/CORBIS; 596: © CORBIS; 599: © Joseph Sohm; Visions of America/CORBIS; 600: © Lindsay Hebberd/CORBIS; 604: Jose Luis Palaez, Inc./CORBIS; 607: Prentice Hall; 612: © Ian Shaw /Alamy; 614: © Myrleen Ferguson Cate /Photo Edit;

Grade 10 Unit 4 624–625: © Neil Brennan/Canopy lllustration/Veer; 626: © Spencer Grant /Photo Edit; 626: istockphoto.com; 627: © wsr /Alamy; 630: CALVIN AND HOBBES © 1999 Watterson. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.; 631: © David Young-Wolff /Photo Edit; 633: t. © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 633: b. © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 634: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 641: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 641: mt. AP/Wide World Photos; 641: mb. Art Resource, NY; 641: b. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 642: The Lights of Marriage, (detail) Marc Chagall, Kunsthaus, Zurich, © 1998 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris; 645: Giraudon /Art Resource, NY; 646: Smithsonian Banque d’Images, ADAGP /Art Resource, NY; 648: The Old Guitarist, 1903, Pablo Picasso, Spanish, 1881–1973, oil on panel 122.9 x 82.6 cm, Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection, 1926.253. Reproduction, The Art Institute of Chicago, © 2004 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; 650: The Black Carp (woodblock print), Harunobu, Gakutei (fl. 1818–30) /Private Collection, Photo © Held Collection /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 650–651: © Micha Pawlitzki/zefa/CORBIS; 652: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 654: The Royal Fusiliers, 1876 (w/c on paper), Simkin, Richard (1840–1926) /Private Collection, © Malcolm Innes Gallery, London, UK /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 657: b. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution /Art Resource, NY; 657: ml. AP/Wide World Photos; 657: ml. Photo by James Evans; 657: t. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 658: Haymaking, 1898, Alfred Glendenning, Tate Gallery, London/Art Resource, NY; 659: The Oak of Flagey, called Vercingetorix, Courbet, Gustave (1819–1877) /Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, USA, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 660: Attic red-figure hydria, decorated with a scene of the Thracian bard Thamyris being deprived of sight and voice, from the Group of Polygnotus, from Greece, c. 440–420 B.C. (ceramic), / © Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford, UK, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 661: Reconstruction of the Queen’s Lyre, from Ur, c. 2600–2400 B.C., Mesopotamian /British Museum, London, UK, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 662: © Stefan Klein/istockphoto.com; 663: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM ™ ; 664: Kamil Vojnar; 665: © Catherine Hazard /SuperStock; 675: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 675: mt. Dylan Thomas (1914–1953), c. 1937–1938 (oil on canvas), John, Augustus Edwin (1878–1961)/ © National Museum and Gallery of Wales, Cardiff/www.bridgeman.co.uk; 675: mb. Minamoto Toshiyori, Heibonsha/Pacific Press Service; 675: b. Kino Tsurayuki, Heibonsha/Pacific Press Service; 676: © Patti Mollica /SuperStock; 678: Old Man in Sorrow (On the Threshold of Eternity) 1890 (oil on canvas), Gogh, Vincent van (1853–1890) /Rijksmuseum Kroller-Muller, Otterlo, Netherlands, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 680: © Christie’s Images; 683: t. Bentley Historical Library; 683: mt. SuperStock; 683: mb. Jakuren Houshi, Heibonsha/Pacific Press Service; 683: b. Onono-komachi, Heibonsha/Pacific Press Service; 684: Cumberland Hills, 1948 (oil on board), Nicholson, Winifred (1893–1981) /Arts Council Collection, Hayward Gallery, London, UK, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 686: Frances Howard, Isaac Oliver, Victoria and Albert Museum/Art Resource, NY; 686: border. Lisa Thornberg /istockphoto.com; 688: View of the Summer Palace, Peking (colour on silk), Chinese School /Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, France, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 695: © Michael Freeman/CORBIS; 696: © Michael Freeman/CORBIS; 697: Tetra Images/Getty Images; 701: t. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 701: m. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 701: b. J. P. Gauthier/Globe Photos; 702: © Christie’s Images /SuperStock; 703: Scala /Art Resource, NY; 704: Marilyn Monroe, Andy Warhol, © Andy Warhol Foundation/CORBIS; 705: Marilyn Monroe, Andy Warhol, © Andy Warhol Foundation/CORBIS; 705: Marilyn Monroe, Andy Warhol, © Andy Warhol Foundation/CORBIS; 717: t. Amherst College Archives and Special Collections, by permission of the Trustees of Amherst College; 717: m. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 717: b. Photo by Bachrach. Used by permission of Marian Reiner; 718: istockphoto.com; 719: © Howard J. Winter/zefa/CORBIS; 720: © Michael A. Keller/CORBIS; 720: inset © Lew Robertson/CORBIS; 721: © Robert Michael/CORBIS; 722: © Russell Tate/istockphoto.com; 725: t. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution /Art Resource, NY; 725: m. Dina Gona; 725: b. Amherst College Archives and Special Collections, by permission of the Trustees of Amherst College; 726: © Regien Paassen; 727: The Cliffs of Moher, 2003 (oil on board), Warmoth, Pip Todd (b. 1962) / Private Collection, Kings Road Galleries / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 728: © Joel Barr /SuperStock; 735: t. Photograph © The Estate of Carl Van Vechten Gravure and Compilation © Eakins Press Foundation; 735: m. The Granger Collection, New York; 735: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 736: Autumn Lamp (Guitar Player, 1983), Romare Bearden, From the Mecklenburg Autumn Series, oil with collage, 40” x 31”, Private collection, © 1997 Romare Bearden Foundation/Licensed by VAGA, New York, New York; 738: © Oksana Struk/istockphoto.com; 739: t. © istockphoto.com; 739: b. © Aliaksandr Stsiazhyn /istockphoto.com; 743: t. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 743: m. Michael Nicholson/CORBIS; 743: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 744: Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C. /Art Resource, NY; 745: Terror from the Deep (gouache on paper), Frey, Oliver (b. 1948) /Private Collection, © Look and Learn /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 746: © SuperStock, Inc. /SuperStock; 755: t. Art Kowalsky/Alamy; 755: b. Karsten Wrobel/Alamy; 755: bkgrnd. Siephoto/Masterfile; 756: Ariadne Van Zandbergen/Alamy; 756: bkgrnd. Siephoto/Masterfile; 759: t. © Kuntz Doug/CORBIS Sygma; 759: m. Dorothy Alexander; 759: b. Dorothy Alexander; 760: Getty Images; 761: l. Courtesy of Columbia Records; 761: r. © Retna, LTD; 762–763: istockphoto.com; 764: AP/Wide World Photos; 765: t. One of a series of paintings of birds and fruit, late 19th century (w/c on paper), Wang Guochen (19th century) /School of Oriental & African Studies Library, Univ. of London, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 765: b. AP/Wide World Photos; 766: One of a series of paintings of birds and fruit, late 19th century (w/c on paper), Wang Guochen (19th century) /School of Oriental & African Studies Library, Univ. of London, /The Bridgeman Art Library International; 768: Index Stock Imagery, Inc.; 771: Prentice Hall; 776: © Spencer Grant /Photo Edit;

Grade 10 Unit 5 778: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 788–789: Ron Sanford/CORBIS; 790: © Dave Reede/Getty Images; 791: © Elmar Krenkel/zefa/CORBIS; 794: FOXTROT © 2003 Bill Amend. Reprinted with permission of UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. All rights reserved.; 795: © Bob Daemmrich /Photo Edit; 797: © Chris Bennion/Seattle Children’s Theater; 800: © Chris Bennion/Seattle Children’s Theater; 803: © Peter Turnley/CORBIS; 804–805: © Chris Bennion/Seattle Children’s Theater; 808: Tony Perrottet/Omni-Photo Communications, Inc.; 809: l. Robbie Jack/CORBIS; 809: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 813: t. Vatican Museum/Scala/Art Resource, NY; 813: b. Images Courtesy of Old Dominion University Theatre Program. ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 814: Images Courtesy of Old Dominion University Theatre Program. ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 817: Images Courtesy of Old Dominion University Theatre Program. ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 819: Images Courtesy of Old Dominion University Theatre Program. ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 821: Images Courtesy of Old Dominion University Theatre Program. ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 823: Liz McAulay/ © Dorling Kindersley; 824: ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 828: Images Courtesy of Old Dominion University Theatre Program. ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 830: l. Robbie Jack/CORBIS; 830: r. Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource, NY; 839: Images Courtesy of Old Dominion University Theatre Program. ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 842: Images Courtesy of Old Dominion University Theatre Program. ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 846: Images Courtesy of Old Dominion University Theatre Program. ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 849: Images Courtesy of Old Dominion University Theatre Program. ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 852: Etruscan Amphora, Black-figured, pontic Fighting soldiers, white dove on shield, National Museum, Warsaw, Poland, Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 854: Images Courtesy of Old Dominion University Theatre Program. ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 857: Images Courtesy of Old Dominion University Theatre Program. ANTIGONE, 2000. Directed by Dr. Erlene Hendrix. Designed & Photographed by Konrad Winters.; 869: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 870: AP/Wide World Photos; 874: Robbie Jack/CORBIS; 884: Illustration by Hugh Dixon from Shakespeare in Performance courtesy of Salamander Books, London; 885: Adam Woolfitt/CORBIS; 890: l. SuperStock; 890: r. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 892: bkgrnd. Roman/Bridgeman Art ARCHIVE/Getty Images; 892: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 893: istockphoto.com; 895: Painting from the Villa Boscoreale (fresco), Roman, (1st century B.C.)/Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples, Italy, Giraudon/www.bridgeman.co.uk; 896: Picture Post/Hulton Archive/Getty Images; 899: Sunset Boulevard/CORBIS SYGMA; 900: Scala /Art Resource, NY; 903: The Art Archive/Jan Vinchon Numismatist Paris/Dagli Orti; 906: Scala/Art Resource; 908: The Art Archive/Provinciaal Museum G M Kam Nijmegen Netherlands/Dagli Orti; 911: Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY; 916: Reunion des Musees Nationaux/Art Resource; 916: Roman/Bridgeman Art ARCHIVE/Getty Images; 917: istockphoto.com; 922: Culver Pictures, Inc.; 926: Hulton Archive/Getty Images; 930: Prisma/Ancient Art and Architecture Coll, Ltd; 931: The Art Archive/Museo Nazionale Terme Rome/Dagli Orti; 933: Reunion de Musees Nationaux/Art Resource, NY; 934: Doug Pearson/CORBIS; 940: Death of Julius Caesar (100–44 BC) (oil on canvas) by Vincenzo Camuccini (1773–1844). Museo e Gallerie Nazionali di Capodimonte, Naples, Italy/The Bridgeman Art Library; 940: bkgrnd. Roman/Bridgeman Art ARCHIVE/Getty Images; 941: istockphoto.com; 943: Timothy McCarthy/Art Resource, NY; 944: MGM /THE KOBAL COLLECTION; 951: John Springer Collection/CORBIS; 954: CORBIS; 958: MGM/Photofest; 961: Extispicium relief (inspection of entrails) from the Forum of Trajan, Rome. Early Hadrianic. Louvre, Paris, France, Alinari/Art Resource, NY; 966: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 966: bkgrnd. Roman/Bridgeman Art ARCHIVE/Getty Images; 967: istockphoto.com; 969: Hulton Archive/Getty Images Inc.; 973: The Art Archive/Rheinischeslandesmuseum Bonn/Dagli Orti; 974: Hulton Archive/Getty Images Inc.; 976: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 982: The Art Archive/Jan Vinchon Numismatist Paris/Dagli Orti; 986: Bust of Brutus (85–42 B.C.) c. 1540 (marble) (see also 244606) by Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564). Museo Nzaionale del Bargello, Florence, Italy/Alinari/The Bridgeman Art Library.; 986: bkgrnd. Roman/Bridgeman Art ARCHIVE/Getty Images; 987: istockphoto.com; 991: A Roman Triumph, 1838 (oil on canvas) by Frank Topham (1838–1924). New Walk Museum, Leicester City Museum Service. UK/The Bridgeman Art Library; 993: Hulton Archive/Getty Images Inc.; 999: Hulton Archive/Getty Images Inc.; 1009: © Zacharias Dimitriadis/IML Image Group/drr.net; 1010: © Zacharias Dimitriadis/IML Image Group/drr.net; 1011: © Alan Schein Photography/CORBIS; 1012: © David Frazier/CORBIS; 1015: CORBIS; 1016: Joan Marcus Photography; 1020: Bluestone Productions/SuperStock; 1024: Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 1032: © Dave Reede/Getty Images; 1034: istockphoto.com;

Grade 10 Unit 6 1044–1045: Masterfile; 1046: © ImageState /Alamy; 1047: © David Grossman /Alamy; 1050: NON SEQUITUR © 1999 Wiley Miller. Dist. By UNIVERSAL PRESS SYNDICATE. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved.; 1051: © Bob Daemmrich /Photo Edit; 1054: t. Library of Congress; 1054: m. The Institute of Texan Cultures, San Antonio, Texas; 1054: bl. Photodisc/Getty Images; 1054: br. Geoff Brightling/ © Dorling Kindersley; 1055: Courtesy of John Philip Santos; 1057: t. New Mexico Department of Tourism; 1057: b. National Archives and Records Administration; 1058: Schalkwijk /Art Resource, NY; 1065: t. Courtesy, Houghton Mifflin Company; 1065: b. Mimmo Jodice/CORBIS; 1066: Prometheus Carrying Fire, Jan Cossiers, Art Resource, NY; 1068: Wolfgang Kaehler/CORBIS; 1069: Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library; 1070: Tefano Bianchetti/CORBIS; 1075: t. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 1072: m. Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY; 1075: b. Jeff Vanuga/CORBIS; 1076: The Color of Sun, Howard Terpning, oil, 26 x 26, © 2002 Howard Terpning, licensed by The Greenwich Workshop, Inc.; 1078: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz /Art Resource, NY; 1080: Jason Lindsey /Alamy; 1081: Steve Kaufman/CORBIS; 1083: Jeff Vanuga/CORBIS; 1084: Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library; 1093: t. Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY; 1093: b. Cover from Sundiata. Copyright © 1992 by David Wisniewski. Reprinted by permission of Clarion Books/Houghton Mifflin Co. All rights reserved.; 1094: Cover from Sundiata. Copyright © 1992 by David Wisniewski. Reprinted by permission of Clarion Books/Houghton Mifflin Co. All rights reserved.; 1098: Leather painting of An Elder Wearing Otuogwu Cloth Talking to a Teen Boy, John Mainga, LAMU, The Gallery of Contemporary African Art, photo by John Lei/Omni-Photo Communications, Inc.; 1101: Dea/Dani-Jeski/Getty Images, Inc.; 1102: The Granger Collection, New York; 1103: M. & E. Bernheim/Woodfin Camp & Associates; 1103: Getty Images; 1107: t. Victoria & Albert Museum, London/Art Resource, NY; 1107: b. © Marilyn Silverstone /Magnum Photos; 1108: Victoria & Albert Museum, London/Art Resource, NY; 1111: Angelo Hornak/CORBIS; 1113: Private Collection, Archives Charmet /The Bridgeman Art Library; 1114: Mary Evans Picture Library /Alamy; 1123: t. Photo courtesy of Denise Dierich; 1123: b. Joe Raedle/Getty Images; 1124: © David Butow/CORBIS SABA; 1129: t. Courtesy of Barbara Benson Golseth; 1129: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 1130: Psyche Gazes in Despair at Cupid Flying Away, Sir Edward Burne-Jones/The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 1132: Cupid and Psyche, Sir Edward Burne-Jones/The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 1138: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 1141: Carl Offterdinger/The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 1155: t. Getty Images; 1155: b. Duncan Walker/istockphoto.com; 1156: Ivan Gusev/istockphoto.com; 1156–1157: Duncan Walker/istockphoto.com; 1159: istockphoto.com; 1161: The Granger Collection, New York; 1162: Pete Dancs/Getty Images; 1164: The Granger Collection, New York; 1167: The Granger Collection, New York; 1173: t. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 1173: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 1174: The Lamentation of King Arthur by William Bell Scott (1811–1890), © Private Collection/ © Whitford & Hughes, London, UK/The Bridgeman Art Library; 1177: The Granger Collection, New York; 1179: Courtesy of the Trustees of British Library; 1181: The Dream of Arthur in Avalon, detail, Sir Edward Burne-Jones,The Museo de Arte de Ponce, The Luis A. Ferré Foundation, Inc. Ponce, Puerto Rico; 1183: Victoria & Albert Museum, London/Art Resource; 1191: t. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 1191: b. istockphoto.com; 1192: istockphoto.com; 1195: istockphoto.com; 1199: David Nunuk/Photo Researchers, Inc.; 1201: The Eclipse of the Sun Predicted by Hank Morgan, illustration for A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court, by Mark Twain (1835–1910), published 1988 (engraving) (see 193780), Belomlinsky, Mikhail (Contemporary Artist)/Private Collection/www.bridgeman.co.uk; 1202: istockphoto.com; 1207: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 1207: b. Don Quixote, Pablo Picasso, Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York, © 2004 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; 1208: Giraudon/Art Resource, NY; 1210: Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 1211: Leonard e Selva/CORBIS; 1213: Don Quixote, Pablo Picasso, Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York, © 2004 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; 1215: Don Quixote and the Windmill, Francisco J. Torrome (fl. 1890–1908), Bonhams, London/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 1225: BUENA VISTA/HOLLYWOOD/THE KOBAL COLLECTION; 1226: t. BUENA VISTA/HOLLYWOOD/THE KOBAL COLLECTION; 1226: b. BUENA VISTA/HOLLYWOOD/THE KOBAL COLLECTION/BRAY, PHIL; 1229: t. Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource, NY; 1229: b. Getty Images; 1230: Culver Pictures, Inc.; 1231: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource, NY; 1233: The Anglers, Study for La Grand-Jatte, 1883, Georges Seurat, Oil on panel, 16 x 25cm. Musee Nat. d’Art Moderne, Troyes, France, Giraudon/Art Resource, NY; 1235: Les Maisons Cabassud à la Ville d’Avray, Jean Baptiste Camille Corot, The Louvre, Paris, Scala, Art Resource, New York; 1238: © Christie’s Images; 1242: Bluestone Productions/Getty Images; 1245: Prentice Hall; 1250: © ImageState /Alamy; 1252: © Dan Forer/Beateworks/CORBIS;

Staff Credits
The people who made up the Pearson Prentice Hall Literature team—representing design, editorial, editorial services, education technology, manufacturing and inventory planning, market research, marketing services, planning and budgeting, product planning, production services, project office, publishing processes, and rights and permissions—are listed below. Boldface type denotes the core team members. Tobey Antao, Margaret Antonini, Rosalyn Arcilla, Penny Baker, James Ryan Bannon, Stephan Barth, Tricia Battipede, Krista Baudo, Rachel Beckman, Julie Berger, Lawrence Berkowitz, Melissa Biezin, Suzanne Biron, Rick Blount, Marcela Boos, Betsy Bostwick, Kay Bosworth, Jeff Bradley, Andrea Brescia, Susan Brorein, Lois Brown, Pam Carey, Lisa Carrillo, Geoffrey Cassar, Patty Cavuoto, Doria Ceraso, Jennifer Ciccone, Jaime Cohen, Rebecca Cottingham, Joe Cucchiara, Jason Cuoco, Alan Dalgleish, Karen Edmonds, Irene Ehrmann, Stephen Eldridge, Amy Fleming, Dorothea Fox, Steve Frankel, Cindy Frederick, Philip Fried, Diane Fristachi, Phillip Gagler, Pamela Gallo, Husain Gatlin, Elaine Goldman, Elizabeth Good, John Guild, Phil Hadad, Patricia Hade, Monduane Harris, Brian Hawkes, Jennifer B. Heart, Martha Heller, John Hill, Beth Hyslip, Mary Jean Jones, Grace Kang, Nathan Kinney, Roxanne Knoll, Kate Krimsky, Monisha Kumar, Jill Kushner, Sue Langan, Melisa Leong, Susan Levine, Dave Liston, Mary Luthi, George Lychock, Gregory Lynch, Joan Mazzeo, Sandra McGloster, Eve Melnechuk, Kathleen Mercandetti, Salita Metha, Artur Mkrtchyan, Karyn Mueller, Alison Muff, Christine Mulcahy, Kenneth Myett, Elizabeth Nemeth, Stefano Nese, Carrie O’Connor, April Okano, Kim Ortell, Sonia Pap, Raymond Parenteau, Dominique Pickens, Linda Punskovsky, Sheila Ramsay, Maureen Raymond, Mairead Reddin, Erin Rehill-Seker, Renée Roberts, Laura Ross, Bryan Salacki, Sharon Schultz, Jennifer Serra, Melissa Shustyk, Rose Sievers, Christy Singer, Yvonne Stecky, Cynthia Summers, Steve Thomas, Merle Uuesoo, Roberta Warshaw, Patricia Williams, Daniela Velez

Additional Credits
Lydie Bemba, Victoria Blades, Denise Data, Rachel Drice, Eleanor Kostyk, Jill Little, Loraine Machlin, Evan Marx, Marilyn McCarthy, Patrick O’Keefe, Shelia M. Smith, Lucia Tirondola, Laura Vivenzio, Linda Waldman, Angel Weyant

Grade 11

Photo Credits
Note: Every effort has been made to locate the copyright owner of material reproduced on this component. Omissions brought to our attention will be corrected in subsequent editions.

1: © Imtek Imagineering/ Masterfie; 5: © Sandra Templeton/Stock; 1: The Art Archive / Gift of Mrs. Karl Frank / Buffalo Bill Historical Center, Cody, Wyoming / 14.86; 2: b. Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 2: Library of Congress; 4: l. Bettmann/CORBIS; 4: r. Bettmann/CORBIS; 5: l. The Gallery Collection/CORBIS; 5: r. Blue Lantern Studio/CORBIS; 6: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 6: l. Lee Snider/Photo Images/CORBIS; 7: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 7: bl. Bettmann/CORBIS; 7: br. Scala/Art Resource; 8: l. Burstein Collection/CORBIS; 8: r. istockphoto.com; 9 br. Chris Hillier/CORBIS; 9: t. istockphoto.com; 9: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 10: l. Bettmann/CORBIS; 10: r. Blue Lantern Studio/CORBIS; 10: m. Bettmann/CORBIS; 11: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 11: l. istockphoto.com; 12: m. The Gallery Collection/CORBIS; 12: r. Cynthia Hart Designer/CORBIS; 12: l. The Granger Collection, New York; 13: r. Francis G. Mayer/CORBIS; 13: l. Gerrit Greve/CORBIS; 15: r. Photo by Rebecca Dallinger; Courtesy of Susan Power; 15: t. Michael Storrings; 16: Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC / Art Resource, NY; 17: Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC / Art Resource, NY; 21: Mary Ann McDonald?CORBIS; 23: istockphoto.com; 24: © /Masterfile (Royalty-Free Div.); 26: l. Yva Momatiuk/CORBIS; 26: r. istockphoto.com; 27: CORBIS; 30: Julie Downing and Grahame Corbett/ © Dorling Kindersley; 32: The Granger Collection, New York; 32: t. Photo by Rebecca Dallinger; Courtesy of Susan Power; 32: rm. The Grass Dancer, Susan Power. Penguin Putnam, Inc. Copyright © 1994 by Susan Power; 32: bl. The Roofwalker, Susan Power. Milkweed Editions. †Á 2002, Text by Susan Power. Cover and Interior design by Dale Cooney. Cover painting, Migrations, oil, 1996 by Ojibwe artist Jim Denomie; 34: © Brooklyn Museum/CORBIS; 35: istockphoto.com; 37: The Old Guitarist, 1903, Pablo Picasso, Spanish, 1881–1973, oil on panel 122.9 x 82.6 cm, Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection, 1926.253. Reproduction, The Art Institute of Chicago, © 2004Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; 38: Buffalo Bill Historical Center; Cody, Wyoming; Gift of Hon. and Mrs. William Henry Harrison; NA. 202.70; 39: DLILLC/CORBIS; 41: John Kahionhes Fadden; 42: CORBIS; 42: bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 43: W. Perry Conway/CORBIS; 46: 50: Painting of Cabeza de Vaca, Esteban and their companions among various Texas Indian tribes, Tom Mirrat, The Institute of Texan Cultures, San Antonio, Texas; 52: © Daryl Benson/Masterfile; 53: David Muench/CORBIS; 55: Geoffrey Clements/CORBIS; 56: The Granger Collection, New York; 57: Bettmann/CORBIS; 60: Bettmann/CORBIS; 61: istockphoto.com; 68: Ric Francis/epa/CORBIS; 69: Denis Scott/CORBIS; 70–71: b. Getty Images; 71: inset AP/Wide World Photos; 73: Pilgrims Going to Church, George Henry Boughton, Collection of The New-York Historical Society; 75: The Granger Collection, New York; 76: istockphoto.com; 77: Anne Bradstreet , The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America, Ladonna Gulley Warrick, Courtesy of the artist; 78: m. Mimmo Jodice/CORBIS; 78: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 78: bl. Demetrio Carrasco © CONACULTA-INAH-MEX. Authorized by the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia; 78: br. Dance of Apollo with the Nine Muses (tempera on panel), Peruzzi, Baldassarre (1481–1536) / Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Italy, Alinari / The Bridgeman Art Library; 85: CORBIS; 86: 0087: b. istockphoto.com; 87: t. istockphoto.com; 89: © North Wind/North WInd Picture Archives; 90–91: istockphoto.com; 95: George Washington (1732–1799) (colour litho) by John Trumbull (1756–1843) (after); Private Collection/ Peter Newark American Pictures/ The Bridgeman Art Library; Nationality / copyright status: American / out of copyright;96: The Granger Collection, New York; 99: National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution / Art Resource, NY; 99: inset istockphoto.com; 100: Patrick Henry Before the Virginia House of Burgesses 1851, Peter F. Rothermel, Red Hill, The Patrick Henry National Memorial, Brookneal, Virginia; 104: Bettmann/CORBIS; 106: Swim Ink 2, LLC/CORBIS; 111: John Elk III/Getty Images; 112: National Archives and Records Adminisitration; 112: inset istockphoto.com; 116: The Granger Collection, New York; 117: The Granger Collection, New York; 118: The Granger Collection, New York; 123: Bettmann/CORBIS; 124: Liberty and Washington, New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown; 129: David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit; 131: David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit; 132: AP/Wide World Photos; 132: b. istockphoto.com; 132: b. istockphoto.com; 132: t. istockphoto.com; 132: t. istockphoto.com; 134: The Granger Collection, New York; 135: l. The Granger Collection, New York; 135: m. The Granger Collection, New York; 135: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 136: l. Photo by Michael J. Deas/Time Magazine/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images; 136: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 137: m. The Granger Collection, New York; 137: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 137: l. The Granger Collection, New York; 138: tm. The Granger Collection, New York; 138: br. Courtesy of the Bakken Library, Minneapolis; 138: tr. The Granger Collection, New York; 138: tl. The Granger Collection, New York; 140: Christieís Images/SuperStock; 146: t. Richard Cummings/CORBIS; 146: br. 146: bl. 146: bm. istockphoto.com; 148: The Granger Collection, New York; 149: The Granger Collection, New York; 151: tl. The Granger Collection, New York; 151: bl. Seattle Art Museum, Gift of Katherine White and the Boeing Company. Photo by Paul Macapia; 151: br. Seattle Art Museum, Gift of Katherine White and the Boeing Company. Photo by Paul Macapia; 152: © The New Yorker Collection 1965 William Hamiliton from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.; 153: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 156: #6: Getty Images; 156: #8: Bassouls Sophie/CORBIS; 156: #10: AP/Wide World Photos; 156: #4: The Granger Collection, New York; 156: #2: Bettmann/CORBIS; 156: #3: Bettmann/CORBIS; 156: #7: Rune Hellestad/CORBIS; 156: #1: Bettmann/ CORBIS; 156: #5: Getty Images; 156: #9: AP/Wide World Photos; 158: AP/Wide World Photos; 159: DK Limited/CORBIS; 160–161: border Michael Storrings; 161: Rivera, Diego (1866–1957). The grinder (La molendera). 1926. Oil on canvas, 35 7/16 x 46 1/16 in. Museo Nacional de Arte Moderno, Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico. © Banco de Mexico Diego Rivera & Frida Kahlo Museums Trust. Av. Cinco de Mayo No. 2, Col. Centro, Del. Cuauhtemoc 06059, Mexico, D.F. Reproduction authorized by the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes y Literatura. Courtesy of Art Resource, NY; 162: © JUPITERIMAGES/ PHOTOS.COM / Alamy; 162–163: border Michael Storrings; 164: b. © Imagebroker / Alamy; 164: t. Michael Storrings; 166: t. Prentice Hall; 166: b. 167: Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 169: Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter, Devon, UK/The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 170: The Art Archive/Maritime Museum Kronborg Castle Denmark/Dagli Orti; 171: Christie’s Images/CORBIS; 171: b. © Dorling Kindersley, Courtesy of the Wilberforce House Museum; 171: t. Courtesy of the North Carolina Office of Archives and History; 172: The Granger Collection, New York; 175: istockphoto.com; 180: m. The Granger Collection, New York; 180: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 180: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 181: b. Profiles in History/CORBIS; 181: t. Judith Miller / Dorling Kindersley / Dreweatt Neate; 183: The Granger Collection, New York; 184: Library of Congress; 185: Library of Congress; 188: Deeble & Stone/OSF/Animals Animals-Earth Scenes; 191: Photo by Rebecca Dallinger; Courtesy of Susan Power; 199: no credit; 199: no credit; 199: no credit; 199: no credit; 199: no credit; 199: no credit; 208–209: Geoffrey Clements/CORBIS; 210: tr. The Granger Collection, New York; 210: t. Krause, Johansen/Archivo Iconografico, SA/Corbis; 210: m.: 211: br. Bettmann/CORBIS; 211: bmr. Science Museum; 211: mr. Science Museum; 211: tr. Old Sturbridge Village; 211: tl. Bettmann/CORBIS; 211: bl. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution; 211: rt. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution; 212: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 213: br. The Granger Collection, New York; 213: bl. The Art Archive / MusÈe du Ch‚teau de Versailles / Gianni Dagli Orti; 214: br. Bettmann/CORBIS; 214: bm. 215: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 215: br. The National Academy of Science of Philadelphia/CORBIS; 216: bm. Bettmann/CORBIS; 216: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 217: br. Image Source/CORBIS; 217: bm. The Granger Collection, New York; 217: bl. Stefano Bianchetti/CORBIS; 218: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 218: bm. The Granger Collection, New York; 218: br. Frank Lukasseck/CORBIS; 219: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 219: bm. The Granger Collection, New York; 219: br. The Granger Collection, New York; 220: bm. Bettmann/CORBIS; 220: bm. The Granger Collection, New York; 221: bl. Bettmann/CORBIS; 221: ml. Bettmann/CORBIS; 221: bm. Joseph Sohm/Visions of America/CORBIS; 221: br. North Wind Picture Archives; 223: t. Aurora/Getty Images; 224: t. Aurora/Getty Images; 225: © Private Collection/ Photo © Christie’s Images/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 227: Bettmann/CORBIS; 228: b. © Dorling Kindersley; 228–233: Martial Columb/Getty Images; 230: t. CORBIS; 233: unknown; 233: unknown; 233: t. Hardy/zefa/CORBIS; 234: b. Phil Schermeister/CORBIS; 235: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 236: t. Phil Schermeister/CORBIS; 238: l. Lothar Lenz/zefa/CORBIS; 239: Peter Johnson/CORBIS; 239: Geoffrey Clements/CORBIS; 239: Geoffrey Clements/CORBIS; 239: Peter Johnson/CORBIS; 242–243: Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 243: 244: tl. The Granger Collection, New York; 244: b. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution/Art Resource, NY; 245: t. Smithsonian Institution, 95-3550; 246: t. North Wind Picture Archives; 248: Library of Congress; 250: b. Lewis and Clark with Sacajawea at the Great Falls on the Missouri, O.C. Seltzer, 0137.871, From the Collection of Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa; 250: t. Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, David Schultz; 251: t. North Wind Picture Archives; 252: l. Missouri Historical Society; 253: t. North Wind Picture Archives; 253: m. Library of Congress; 256: CORBIS; 257: r. CORBIS; 258: tl. 260: t. Craig Tuttle/CORBIS; 261: The Granger Collection, New York; 262: t. Image copyright © The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource, NY; 265: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 266: CORBIS Sygma; 269: MARY EVANS/ARTHUR RACKHAM; 271: Smithsonian Institution/CORBIS; 276: b. Louis R. Linscott and S.B. Goddard & Son Co.; 280: t. New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, New York; 282: t. The Puritan, c. 1898, Frank E. Schoonover, Oil on canvas, Collection of The Brandywine River Museum, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob J. Foster, 1981. © 2002 Brandywine Conservancy; 283: 288: b. CORBIS; 289: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 290: bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 292: Royal Photographic Society/Science & Society Picture Library; 299: 312–313: Patrick Cocklin/Getty Images; 316: University of Delaware Library, Newark, Delaware; 318: © The New Yorker Collection 1990 Ed Frascino from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.; 318: Bettmann/CORBIS; 322: © age/fotostock/SuperStock; 322: CORBIS; 324: CORBIS; 324: Peter Freed/CORBIS; 325: rt. Paul Knight, Trevillion Images; 326: t. Yolande de Kort, Trevillion Images; 327: SuperStock; 329: r. Geoff Eley, Trevillion Images; 331: Karl J. Kuerner III/SuperStock; 331: r. Gaetan Charbonneau/Getty Images; 335: r. Bettmann/CORBIS; 335: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 336: 338: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 340: t. Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library; 346: b. James Stevenson and Tina Chambers © Dorling Kindersley, Courtesy of the National Maritime Museum, London; 350: l. Bettmann/CORBIS; 352: The Granger Collection, New York; 359: Mark Karrass/CORBIS; 362: tr. © Elisheba Johnson; 362: m. 363: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 365: r. Bettmann/CORBIS; 366–367: Momatiuk - Eastcott/CORBIS; 371: b. Leonard Harris/Stock, Boston; 374: rt. Pearson Education/PH School Division; 375: t. Courtesy Concord Free Public Library, Concord Massachusetts; 377: br. The Granger Collection, New York; 378: David Muench/CORBIS; 382: b. Pat OíHara/CORBIS; 382: r. Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz / Art Resource, NY; 382–383: border David Muench/CORBIS; 388: r. istockphoto.com; 388: br. istockphoto.com; 389: bkgrnd. 389: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 392: Lee Snider/CORBIS; 393: t. Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 393: b. istockphoto.com; 395: t. istockphoto.com; 395: tr. Theo Allofs/zefa/CORBIS; 395: b. istock-photo.com; 396: b. istockphoto.com; 398: b. Rune Hellestad/CORBIS; 399: r. moodboard/CORBIS; 401: Christieís Images/CORBIS; 404: b. ames Marshall/CORBIS; 404: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 405: b. Courtesy of the Emily Dickinson Museum, Amherst, Massachusetts; 405: t. 406: inset Bettmann/CORBIS; 406: Amherst College Archives and Special Collections, by permission of the Trustees of Amherst College; 408: t. Waiting Outside No. 12, Anonymous, Crane Kalman Gallery; 410: Room With a Balcony, Adolph von Menzel, Staatliche Museen Preubischer Kulturbesitz, Nationgalerie, Berlin; 412: © British Museum; 412: t. istockphoto.com; 413: b. Heibonsha/Pacific Press Service; 413: m. Heibonsha/Pacific Press Service; 415: istockphoto.com; 416: istockphoto.com; 434–435: Haystack, 1938 (tempera with oil glaze on linen on panel), Benton, Thomas Hart (1889–1975) / Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, USA, © DACS /Gift of Mr. Frank J. Hevrdejs / The Bridgeman Art Library International/ © T.H. Benton and R.P. Benton Testamentary Trusts/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY; 440: b. Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 443: rt. Pearson Education/PH School Division; 462: Library of Congress; 462: mr. The Granger Collection, New York; 462: tr. Getty Images; 463: tr. detail from the original painting,The Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond, Virginia, Photography by Katharine Wetzel; 463: l. The British Museum/HIP/The Image Works; 463: mr. The Granger Collection, New York; 463: r. Chas Howson © Dorling Kindersley; 463: rt. Dave King © Dorling Kindersley; 464: bl. The Art Archive / Bibliothëque des Arts Dècoratifs Paris / Gianni Dagli Orti; 464: br. CORBIS; 465: bl. Getty Images; 465: bm. 465: br. The Gallery Collection/CORBIS; 465: The Granger Collection, New York; 466: Courtesy of the Library of Congress; 466: br. © 2008 Scott McGee / AlaskaStock.com; 466: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 467: Courtest of the Henry B. Plant Museum; Tampa, FL; 467: br. The Gallery Collection/CORBIS; 467: bl. The Art Archive; 468: bl. Museum of the City of New York/CORBIS; 468: ml. The Granger Collection, New York; 468: br. istockphoto.com; 468: Dunstanburgh Castle in a Thunderstorm, Thomas Girtin, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, UK/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 469: bl. Jose Fuste Raga/CORBIS; 469: br. Columbia Pictures/Photofest; 470: The Lawrence Tree,1929, Georgia O’Keeffe, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT. The Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection, © 1998 The Georgia O’Keeffe Foundation/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; 470: bl. H. Armstrong Roberts/CORBIS; 470: br. Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS; 471: bl. Bettmann/CORBIS; 471: istockphoto.com; 471: br. The Old Guitarist, 1903, Pablo Picasso, Spanish, 1881–1973, oil on panel 122.9 x 82.6 cm, Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection, 1926.253. Reproduction, The Art Institute of Chicago, © 2004 Estate of Pablo Picasso/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; 472: bm. Ted Streshinsky/CORBIS; 472: br. Science Museum/Science & Society Picture Library; 472: bl. Deborah Betz Collection/CORBIS; 473: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 473: br. Bettmann/CORBIS; 474: istockphoto.com; 476: Bettmann/ CORBIS; 477: 479: r. Bettmann/CORBIS; 494: Mulberry Plantation, Camden, S.C.; 499: Bettmann/CORBIS; 500: l. Young Soldier: Separate Study of a Soldier Giving Water to a Wounded Companion, (detail) 1861, Winslow Homer, Oil, gouache, black crayon on canvas, 36 x 17.5 cm., United States, 1836–1910, Cooper-Hewitt, National Museum of Design, Smithsonian Institution, Gift of Charles Savage Homer, Jr., 1912-12-110, Photo by Ken Pelka, Courtesy of Art Resource, New York; 503: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 507: r. Bettmann/CORBIS; 508: 509: r. Bettmann/ CORBIS; 511: t. CORBIS; 513: r. Museum of the Confederacy, Richmond, Virginia; 515: tr. ANCIENT ART & ARCHITECTURE / DanitaDelimont.com; 519: Frederick Douglass (detail), c.1844, Attributed to Elisha Hammond, The National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C./Art Resource, New York; 520: Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC / Art Resource, NY; 522: The Granger Collection, New York; 525: A Home on the Mississippi, 1871, Currier & Ives, The Museum of the City of New York, Harry T. Peters Collection; 526: Bettmann/CORBIS; 532: Layne Kennedy/CORBIS; 537: Bettmann/CORBIS; 538: Bettmann/ CORBIS; 540: CORBIS; 541: The Granger Collection, New York; 544: b. AFP/Getty Images; 544: b. Cover design by John Gall. Cover photograph courtesy of National Geographic. Grove Press and imprint of Grove Atlantic, Inc. Distributed by Publishers Group West; 545: Miramax/Photofest; 546: Miramax/Photofest; 546–547: Purestock; 547: Miramax/Photofest; 548–549: Purestock; 550: t. Prentice Hall; 550: Courtesy of the National Museum of the U.S. Army, Army Art Collection.; 550: b. Cover design by Francine Kass. Cover photograph courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. W.W. Norton; 553: 554: Bettmann/ CORBIS; 555: istockphoto.com; 559: National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution / Art Resource, NY; 560: t. Samir S. Patel; 560: b. Samir S. Patel; 563: North Wind Picture Archives; 564: b. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROM; 564: t. Courtesy National Archives; 566: Bettmann/CORBIS; 566–567: Joseph Sohm/Visions of America/CORBIS; 567: CORBIS; 567: The Granger Collection, New York; 568: Bettmann/CORBIS; 568: bkgrnd. istockphoto.com; 570: Minnesota Historical Society/CORBIS; 572: Historical Picture Archive/CORBIS; 577: The Granger Collection, New York; 579: The Granger Collection, New York; 588: Rick Friedman/CORBIS; 589: t. Tom Kelley/Getty Images; 589: b. ClassicStock; 590: t. 590: b. 592: WALTER SANDERS /Getty Images; 593: U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey; 595: CORBIS; 596: Peter Lilja/Getty Images; 600: © Hans Blohm/Masterfile; 602: Paul A. Souders/CORBIS; 604: Jeff Curtes/CORBIS; 610: Annie Griffiths/DRK Photo; 616: National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution; 617: 619: Connie Ricca/CORBIS; 620: Courtesy of the Lane County Historical Museum; 622: Chief Joseph (detail), 1878, Cyrenius Hall, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C./Art Resource, New York; 627: Missouri Historical Society; 628: Afternoon in Piedmont, (Elsie at the Window), c.1911, Xavier MartÌnez, Collection of The Oakland Museum of California, Gift of Dr. William S. Porter; 631: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 632: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROMô; 635: The Granger Collection, New York; 636: Bettmann/CORBIS; 638: Wayne Lynch/DRK Photo; 638: istockphoto.com; 641: 642: 643: istockphoto.com; 644: THE THINKER (Portrait of Louis N. Kenton, 1900), Thomas Eakins, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, John Stewart Kennedy Fund, 1917. (17.172) Photograph © 2001 The Metropolitan Museum of Art; 645: Edgar Lee Masters (detail), 1946, Francis J. Quirk, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C./Art Resource, New York; 646: Christie’s Images/CORBIS; 647: Joel Greenstein/Omni-Photo Communications, Inc.; 651: New York Times Co./Getty Images, Inc.; 652: George Schreiber (1904–1977), From Arkansas, 1939, oil on canvas, Sheldon Swope Art Museum, Terre Haute, Indiana; 653: The Granger Collection, New York; 654–655: border The Granger Collection, New York; 656: Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images; 656–657: border The Granger Collection, New York; 658: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY; 659: border The Granger Collection, New York; 660–661: border The Granger Collection, New York; 688–689: Drought Stricken Area, 1934 (oil on canvas), Hogue, Alexandre (1898–1994) / Dallas Museum of Art, Texas, USA, / The Bridgeman Art Library; 690: l. Bettmann/CORBIS; 690: r. Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS; 691: #4: MGM/Photofest; 691: #3: United Artists/Photofest; 691: #8: Warner Bros. Pictures/Photofest; 691: #1: Chaplin/Photofest; 691: #5: Getty Images; 691: #2: 20th Century Fox/Photofest; 692: b. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 692: t. 2007 Getty Images/ Hulton Archive/Stringer; 693: bl. © CORBIS; 693: br. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 693: t. Photo by Mansell/Mansell/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images; 694: l. 2007 Getty Images/Hulton Archive/Stringer; 694: r. 2004 AFP/FRAN CAFFREY/Stringer; 695: b. © 2008 The Associated Press. All rights reserved.; 695: m. © JazzSign/Lebrecht Music & Arts/Corbis; 696: l. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 696: r. Photo by Lipnitzki/Roger Viollet/Getty Images; 697: bl. Photo by FPG/Getty Images; 697: tl. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 697: br. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 697: tr. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 698: l. 2007 Getty Images/Hulton Archive/Stringer; 698: RB © Bettmann/CORBIS; 698: rt. © 2008 The Associated Press. All rights reserved.; 699: l. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 699: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 700: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 700: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 701: b. 2007 Getty Images/ Richard Peter Snr/Stringer; 701: t. Jupiter Images/ Polka Dot Images; 703: t. Prentice Hall; 703: m. image copyright © The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY; 703: b. Random House Inc.; 704: Getty Images; 705: CORBIS; 707: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 708: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY; 713: t. CNAC/MNAM/Dist. RÈunion des MusÈes Nationaux / Art Resource, NY; 713: b. erry Cooke/Pix Inc./Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 714: © The New Yorker Collection 1994 Bruce Eric Kaplan from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.; 716: © CORBIS; 717: b. © Bettmann/ CORBIS; 717: t. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 719: istockphoto.com/stephen mulcahey; 720: The Granger Collection, New York; 722: © Paul Seheult/Eye Ubiquitous/Corbis; 723: t. istockphoto.com/Branko Miokovic; 723: b. istockphoto.com/ James Pauls; 724: Art Resource/ The Metropolitan Museum of Art; 725: © age fotostock / SuperStock; 1566–148636-N-X006; 729: Bettmann/CORBIS; 730: 731: tr. istockphoto.com/GARY GODBY; 732: l. Getty Images/C Squared Studios; 732: r. istockphoto.com/ VINCENT GIORDANO; 733: 734: tl. istockphoto.com/GARY GODBY; 735: 736: 738: 738: tl. istockphoto.com/GARY GODBY; 740: l. 741: tr. istockphoto.com/GARY GODBY; 742: Bettmann/CORBIS; 743: tr. istockphoto.com/GARY GODBY; 745: tr. istockphoto.com/GARY GODBY; 747: 748: tl. istockphoto.com/GARY GODBY; 749: tr. istockphoto.com/GARY GODBY; 750: tl. istockphoto.com/GARY GODBY; 751: istockphoto.com/GARY GODBY; 752: 752: m. istockphoto.com/GARY GODBY; 757: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 760: SuperStock, Inc; 766: b. CORBIS; 766: t. Library of Congress; 766: m. John Springer Collection/CORBIS; 767: l. Library of Congress; 767: rt. Library of Congress; 767: RB Library of Congress; 768: Library of Congress, Washington D.C., USA/The Bridgeman Art Library; 773: Bettmann/CORBIS; 774: The Turret Lathe Operator (J.G. Cherry series), 1925, Grant Wood, oil on canvas 18”x 24” Cedar Rapids Museum of Art, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Gift of the Cherry Burrell Charitable Foundation Collection. 75.5.8, © Estate of Grant Wood/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY; 779: Bettmann/CORBIS; 780: Remember Now the Days of Thy Youth, 1950, Paul Starrett Sample, Oil on canvas, 34 x 48 inches, Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH; Gift of Frank L. Harrington, class of 1954; 785: Corbis/Bettmann; 786: istockphoto.com/Dmytro Konstantynov; 788: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 788: b. © Bettmann/CORBIS; 789: istockphoto.com; 791: Untitled, 1964, Alexander Calder, (one of seven lithographs in series), 19 1/2” x 25 1/2” Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Gift of the artist, 1965, Photo by David Heald, © The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York, © 1998 Estate of Alexander Calder/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York; 799: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 800: Military Ambulance, First World War (bodycolour on paper), Simpson, Charles Walter (1885–1971) / Private Collection, © Chris Beetles, London, U.K. / The Bridgeman Art Library; 803: © CORBIS; 804: © CORBIS; 805: © CORBIS; 808: Prentice Hall; 808: b. Random House Inc.; 809: AP/Wide World Photos; 810: MARY EVANS/JACK NOVAK; 812: Philip Jones Griffiths/Magnum Photos; 815: CORBIS; 816: Woman by a Window, Gustav Vermehren Snark/Art Resource, NY; 818: Collection of the Prentice and Paul Sack Photographic Trust of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; 819: istockphoto.com; 821: istockphoto.com; 823: Rèunion des Musèes Nationaux / Art Resource, NY; 823: istockphoto.com; 824: Markus Amon/Getty Images; 825: CORBIS SYGMA; 826: age fotostock / SuperStock; 827: istockphoto.com; 828: ANSA/Corbis; 833: inset Getty Images; 833: t. istockphoto.com; 833: istockphoto.com; 834: l. Verlog Suddeutscher-Bilderdienst; 834: Garden of Memories, 1917, Charles Burchfield, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Gift of Abby Aldrich Rockefeller (by exchange). Digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA/Art Resource, NY; 839: The Bride, 1886 (w/c on paper), Zorn, Anders Leonard (1860–1920) / © Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, Sweden, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 840: © 1993 J. Fishkin. All Rights Reserved.; 847: Philip Gould/CORBIS; 848: Miz Emily, Joseph Holston, 24” x 16”, Courtesy of Joseph Holston (www.holstonart.com); 852: Georgia Red Clay, 1946, Nell Choate Jones, oil on canvas, 25 x 30 inches, 1989.01.094, Morris Museum of Art, Augusta, Georgia; 859: Bettmann/CORBIS; 860: My Life and Hard Times Copyright © 1933 by James Thurber. Copyright © renewed 1961 by James Thurber. Reprinted by arrangement with Rosemary A. Thurber and The Barbara Hogenson Agency.; 862: My Life and Hard Times Copyright © 1933 by James Thurber. Copyright © renewed 1961 by James Thurber. Reprinted by arrangement with Rosemary A. Thurber and The Barbara Hogenson Agency.; 863: My Life and Hard Times Copyright © 1933 by James Thurber. Copyright © renewed 1961 by James Thurber. Reprinted by arrangement with Rosemary A. Thurber and The Barbara Hogenson Agency.; 867: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 868: Stock Montage, Inc.; 870: istockphoto.com; 873: CORBIS; 874: © Photodisc / SuperStock; 877: istockphoto.com; 878–879: The Irish Image Collection/CORBIS; 880: Corel Professional Photos CD-ROMô; 882: Fine Art Photographic Library/CORBIS; 883: © Duomo, Florence, Italy/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 884: Bettmann/CORBIS; 886: © The New Yorker Collection 1993 Mick Stevens from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.; 888: Walter Weissman/Corbis; 889: 890: 891: 892: 893: 894: 895: Evans-Tibbs Collection, Washington, D.C.; 896: Zora and Langston, Phoebe Beasley, Bettmann/CORBIS; 898: CORBIS; 899: Atlantide Phototravel/CORBIS; 900: t. istockphoto.com; 900: b. Winold Reiss (1886–1953), Portrait of Langston Hughes (1902–1967 Poet), pastel on artist board, 76.3 x 54.9 cm. National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC, USA. Art Resource, N.Y.; 903: Aaron Douglas, Into Bondage, 1936, 60 3/8 x 60 1/2, oil on canvas. In the collection of the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. Museum Purchase and Partial Gift of Thurlow Tibbs Jr., The Evans-Tibbs Collection. 1996.9; 904: Nobody Around Here Calls Me Citizen, 1943, Robert Gwathmey, oil on canvas, H. 14-1/4” x W. 17” Collection Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Bequest of Hudson Walker from the Ione and Hudson Walker Collection. © Estate of Robert Gwathmey/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY; 906: Girls Skipping, 1949, Hale Woodruff, oil on canvas, 24” x 32” , Private Collection. Courtesy of Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, New York; 914: b. Nihad Becirovic; 914: t. Christopher Felver/CORBIS; 915: Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC / Art Resource, NY; 916: The Madonna And Child, 1990, Momodou Ceesay, Dialogue Systems, Inc.; 920: CORBIS; 920: b. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution / Art Resource, NY; Image Reference : ART155673; 921: Bettmann/CORBIS; 923: t. Dave G. Houser/CORBIS; 924: b. Hoeing, 1934, Robert Gwathmey, Oil on canvas, 40 by 60 1/4 (101.6 by 153), Carnegie Institute Museum of Art, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Patrons Art Fund, 44.3. Photograph by Richard Stoner, © Estate of Robert Gwathmey/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY; 924: t. istockphoto.com; 926: istockphoto.com; 929: Library of Congress; 930: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 930: t. Lake County Museum/CORBIS; 931: © Hulton Getty/Archive Photos; 931: border Lake County Museum/CORBIS; 932: border Lake County Museum/CORBIS; 933: border Lake County Museum/CORBIS; 934: border Lake County Museum/CORBIS; 935: border Lake County Museum/CORBIS; 936: Lake County Museum/CORBIS; 941: t. MLB Photos via Getty Images; 941: b. 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Archivo Iconografico, S.A./CORBIS; 1202: Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation/Photofest; 1204: Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation/Photofest; 1208: Penguin USA; 1209: The Trial of Two “Witches” at Salem, Massachusetts, in 1662, Howard Pyle, The Granger Collection, New York; 1211: Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation/Photofest; 1221: 20th Century-Fox/Photofest; 1223: PELLETIER MICHELINE/CORBIS SYGMA; 1224: Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation/Photofest; 1226: © Reuters/Brad Rickerby/Archive Photos; 1229: 20TH CENTURY FOX / THE KOBAL COLLECTION; 1234: “It’s Okay—We’re Hunting Communists”. From “Herblock Special Report (W.W. Norton, 1974). 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Staff Credits
The people who made up the Pearson Prentice Hall Literature team—representing design, editorial, editorial services, education technology, manufacturing and inventory planning, market research, marketing services, planning and budgeting, product planning, production services, project office, publishing processes, and rights and permissions—are listed below. Boldface type denotes the core team members. Tobey Antao, Margaret Antonini, Rosalyn Arcilla, Penny Baker, James Ryan Bannon, Stephan Barth, Tricia Battipede, Krista Baudo, Rachel Beckman, Julie Berger, Lawrence Berkowitz, Melissa Biezin, Suzanne Biron, Rick Blount, Marcela Boos, Betsy Bostwick, Kay Bosworth, Jeff Bradley, Andrea Brescia, Susan Brorein, Lois Brown, Pam Carey, Lisa Carrillo, Geoffrey Cassar, Patty Cavuoto, Doria Ceraso, Jennifer Ciccone, Jaime Cohen, Rebecca Cottingham, Joe Cucchiara, Jason Cuoco, Alan Dalgleish, Karen Edmonds, Irene Ehrmann, Stephen Eldridge, Amy Fleming, Dorothea Fox, Steve Frankel, Cindy Frederick, Philip Fried, Diane Fristachi, Phillip Gagler, Pamela Gallo, Husain Gatlin, Elaine Goldman, Elizabeth Good, John Guild, Phil Hadad, Patricia Hade, Monduane Harris, Brian Hawkes, Jennifer B. Heart, Martha Heller, John Hill, Beth Hyslip, Mary Jean Jones, Grace Kang, Nathan Kinney, Roxanne Knoll, Kate Krimsky, Monisha Kumar, Jill Kushner, Sue Langan, Melisa Leong, Susan Levine, Dave Liston, Mary Luthi, George Lychock, Gregory Lynch, Joan Mazzeo, Sandra McGloster, Eve Melnechuk, Kathleen Mercandetti, Salita Metha, Artur Mkrtchyan, Karyn Mueller, Alison Muff, Christine Mulcahy, Kenneth Myett, Elizabeth Nemeth, Stefano Nese, Carrie O’Connor, April Okano, Kim Ortell, Sonia Pap, Raymond Parenteau, Dominique Pickens, Linda Punskovsky, Sheila Ramsay, Maureen Raymond, Mairead Reddin, Erin Rehill-Seker, Renee Roberts, Laura Ross, Bryan Salacki, Sharon Schultz, Jennifer Serra, Melissa Shustyk, Rose Sievers, Christy Singer, Yvonne Stecky, Cynthia Summers, Steve Thomas, Merle Uuesoo, Roberta Warshaw, Patricia Williams, Daniela Velez

Additional Credits
Lydie Bemba, Victoria Blades, Denise Data, Rachel Drice, Eleanor Kostyk, Jill Little, Loraine Machlin, Evan Marx, Marilyn McCarthy, Patrick O’Keefe, Shelia M. Smith, Lucia Tirondola, Laura Vivenzio, Linda Waldman, Angel Weyant

Video Credits
Mona Lisa : © Réunion des Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY; Eleanor Roosevelt : © Bettmannn/CORBIS; Emily Dickinson : © Possible photograph of Emily Dickinson, c1853., from the collection of Philip and Leslie Gura; Keelboat : © Yale Collection of Western Americana, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library; John Steinbeck : © Bettmannn/Corbis; John Ashbery : © Lynn Davis; The Elephant Celebes : © Tate, London/Art Resource, NY; Anne Tyler : © Diana Walker; Portrait of Nathaniel Hawthorne by Charles Osgood : © Courtesy of the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA; Richard Russo : Getty Images © 2008 Ulf Andersen; Elizabeth Bishop : © Bettmann/CORBIS;

Grade 12

Photo Credits

Credits 1: Bridgeman Art Library, London/SuperStock; 2: r. 2: m. © The Board of Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 2: l. Stapleton Collection/CORBIS; 3: rt. Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 3: rm. British Museum/Art Resource, NY; 3: rb. Andy Crawford/ © Dorling Kindersley; 3: bl. Historical Picture Archive/CORBIS; 3: tl. Werner Forman/CORBIS; 4: br. Archivo Iconografico, S.A./CORBIS; 4: bl. The Art Archive / British Museum / Eileen Tweedy; 5: br. 5: bl. Abbie Enock; Travel Ink/CORBIS; 6: bm. The Granger Collection, New York; 6: br. The Art Archive / British Library; 7: bl. Christophe Boisvieux/CORBIS; 7: br. Frans Lanting/CORBIS; 8: br. The Granger Collection, New York; 9: br. The Granger Collection, New York; 9: bl. Werner Forman/CORBIS; 10: bl. The Gallery Collection/CORBIS; 10: br. The Granger Collection, New York; 11: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 11: br. Bettmann/CORBIS; 12: bl. Archivo Iconografico, SA/ CORBIS; 12: br. Danny Lehman/CORBIS; 13: br. Stephano Bianchetti/ CORBIS; 13: bl. HIP/Art Resource, NY; 15: br. Prentice Hall; 17: Bridgeman Art Library, London/SuperStock; 20–21: Barry Lewis/CORBIS; 24: t. St. Cuthbert’s Holy Island, 1797 (w/c over pencil on textured paper) by Thomas Girtin (1775–1802); Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection, USA/ / The Bridgeman Art Library; 26: Matthias Kulka/ CORBIS; 31: r. Clive Druett;Papilio/CORBIS; 33: The Grandsons of Gostosmysl: Rurick, Truvori and Sineus, 1986 (oil on canvas), Glazunov, Ilya (b. 1930) / Private Collection, / The Bridgeman Art Library; 34: The Granger Collection, New York; 37: Boris Vallejo, Inc.; 42: b. Kerstin Hamburg/CORBIS; 46: l. istockphoto.com; 47: b. © The Trustees of the British Museum; 47: TR © The Trustees of the British Museum; 49: r. HIP/Art Resource, NY; 55: tr. British Museum/Art Resource, NY; 59: BEOWULF: A TALE OF BLOOD, HEAT, AND ASHES. Text copyright © 27 by Nicky Raven. Illustrations copyright © 27 by John Howe. Reproduced by permission of the publisher Candlewick Press, Inc., Cambridge, MA; 61: t. 62: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 63: t. BEOWULF: A TALE OF BLOOD, HEAT, AND ASHES. Text copyright © 27 by Nicky Raven. Illustrations copyright © 27 by John Howe. Reproduced by permission of the publisher Candlewick Press, Inc., Cambridge, MA; 68: t. © Smith Richard Frank/CORBIS Sygma; 68: bl. The Art Archive / British Library; 68: m. 69: tr. Richard Cummings/CORBIS; 76: b. 77: 78: 80: t. 83: tr. David Reed/CORBIS; 84: 87: tr. M-Sat Ltd / Photo Researchers, Inc.; 90: l. The Granger Collection, New York; 92–93: The Granger Collection, New York; 93: t. Stapleton Collection/CORBIS; 96–97: Reproduced with the cooperation of Alexandra Szyk Bracie and Historicana www.szyk.com; 100: l. The Yeoman, Arthur Szyk for The CANTERBURY TALES, Reproduced with permission of Alexadra Szyk Bracie and Irvin Ungar; 102: l. The Monk, Arthur Szyk for The CANTERBURY TALES, Reproduced with permission of Alexadra Szyk Bracie and Irvin Ungar; 104: l. The Student, Arthur Szyk for The CANTERBURY TALES, Reproduced with permission of Alexadra Szyk Bracie and Irvin Ungar; 109: The Wife of Bath, Arthur Szyk for The CANTERBURY TALES, Reproduced with permission of Alexadra Szyk Bracie and Irvin Ungar; 111: r. Matt Stroshane/Getty Images, Inc.; 111: no credit necessry; 111: The Miller, Arthur Szyk for The CANTERBURY TALES, Reproduced with permission of Alexadra Szyk Bracie and Irvin Ungar; 112: Richard Ross/CORBIS; 113: The Summoner Arthur Szyk for The CANTERBURY TALES, Reproduced with permission of Alexadra Szyk Bracie and Irvin Ungar; 114: l. The Pardoner, Arthur Szyk for The Canterbury Tales, Reproduced with permission of Alexadra Szyk Bracie and Irvin Ungar; 118: b. Three Monks, Arthur Szyk for The CANTERBURY TALES, Reproduced with permission of Alexadra Szyk Bracie and Irvin Ungar; 124: 131: t. Lambeth Palace Library, London, UK/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 144: Bridgeman Art Library; 151: br. www.car- toonStock.com; 157: r. Summerfield Press/CORBIS; 158: The Decameron, 1916 (oil on canvas), Waterhouse, John William (1849–1917) / © Lady Lever Art Gallery, National Museums Liverpool, / The Bridgeman Art Library; 160: b. Scala/Art Resource; 162: l. The Granger Collection, New York; 167: St. George and the Dragon, c.1606 (oil on canvas), Rubens, Peter Paul (1577–1640) / Prado, Madrid, Spain, Giraudon / The Bridgeman Art Library; 185: Michel Setboun/CORBIS; 188–189: Photo by Mansell/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images; 190–191: Fine Art Photographic Library, London/Art Resource, NY; 193 Giraudon/Art Resource, NY; 193: Giraudon/Art Resource, NY; 196: b. www.cartoon- Stock.com; 201: Photographersdirect.com; 207: tr. The Granger Collection, New York; 211: t. The Gallery Collection/CORBIS; 211: bl. Geoff Dann/ © Dorling Kindersley, Courtesy of the Anthony Barton Collection; 211: bmr. Geoff Dann/ © Dorling Kindersley, Courtesy of the Anthony Barton Collection; 211: bml. Geoff Dann/ © Dorling Kindersley, Courtesy of the Anthony Barton Collection; 211: br. Geoff Dann/ © Dorling Kindersley, Courtesy of the Anthony Barton Collection; 214: b. CORBIS; 234–235: Scala/ Art Resource, NY; 236: br. Private Collection/ The Stapleton Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 236: t. 237: br. Scala/Art Resource, NY; 237: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 237: bmr. The Granger Collection, New York; 237: bml. Science Museum/Science & Society Picture Library; 238: br. Gianni Dagli Orti/CORBIS; 238: bl. Bettmann/CORBIS; 239: King Richard I and his Barons, Anonymous / British Library, London, UK, © British Library Board. All Rights Reserved / The Bridgeman Art Library; 239: bl. Jim Zuckerman/CORBIS; 239: br. 240: bl. Paule Seux/Hemis/CORBIS; 241: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 242: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 243: tr. National Trust/Art Resource, NY; 243: br. Gregg Newton/ Gregg Newton/CORBIS; 243: bl. Andy Willimams/Loop Images/CORBIS; 243: rm. Victoria & Albert Museum, London / Art Resource, NY; 244: bl. Blue Lantern Studio/CORBIS; 244: Bettmann/CORBIS; 245: br. Bettmann/CORBIS; 247: br. Bettmann/CORBIS; 249: b. Prentice Hall; 249: t. © Edinburgh University Library, Scotland/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 250: t. © Hatfield House, Hertfordshire, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 251: Burstein Collection/CORBIS; 251: 253: r. 255: Burstein Collection/CORBIS; 257: r. 258: Victoria & Albert Museum, London/Art Resource, NY; 265 rt. www.cartoonStock.com; 267–268: Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, USA/ Agnes Cullen Arnold Endowment Fund/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 273: r. 274: Private Collection/ The Stapleton Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 277: tr. The Granger Collection, New York; 277: ml. Private Collection/ © Philip Mould Ltd, London/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 277: rm. 277: rb. No. 3856 Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton (1573–1624), c.1594 (gouache on vellum) by Nicholas Hilliard (1547–1619) Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 277: bml. 277: bl. North Wind Picture Archives; 277: tl. The Art Archive/Victoria and Albert Museum London/Sally Chappell; 277: tm. The Art Archive/Victoria and Albert Museum London/Sally Chappell; 277: tr. Judith Miller/ © Dorling Kindersley/Joseph H. Bonner; 277: ml. istockphoto.com; 281: Hans the Younger Holbein (1497/8–1543), Dutch, “Portrait of Henry VIII”, 16th cen- tury. Oil on canvas. Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire. The Bridgeman Art Library Ltd.; 285: tr. “Dangers Averted” medal, celebrating the defeat of the Spanish Armada, c.1589, gold cast and chased by Nicholas Hilliard (1537–1619) Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge/Bridgeman Art Library , London/New York; 286: Elizabeth I, Armada Portrait, c. 1588 (oil on panel) by George Gower (1540–1596) (attr. to). Woburn Abbey, Bedfordshire, UK/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 288: bl. Picture Desk, Inc./Kobal Collection; 290: t. istockphoto.com; 292: m. Getty Images; 292: bl. Getty Images; 293: t. 294: l. Polygram/The Kobal Collection, Bailey, Alex; 295: t. Studio Canal/Working Title/The Koball Collection/Sparham, Laurie; 297: Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library; 298: RÈunion des MusÈes Nationaux / Art Resource, NY; 303: The Return of the Prodigal Son, Lionello Spada/Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 307: Ellen Terry (as Lady Macbeth), 1889, oil on canvas 87” x 45”, Tate Gallery on loan to National Portrait Gallery London, Art Resource, NY; 313: b. Photofest; 313: tr. MIRISCH-7 ARTS/UNITED ARTISTS / THE KOBAL COLLECTION; 313: tl. MGM / THE KOBAL COLLECTION; 316: b. National Portrait Gallery, London/Superstock.; 318: ml. Mary Evans Picture Library; 318–319: b. 324: t. Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY; 328: t. New Walk Museum, Leicester City Museum Service, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 330: b. Darren Robb/Getty Images; 332: b. t. City of Westminster Archive Centre, London, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 343: t. Steve Gorton/ © Dorling Kindersley; 347: Photofest; 350: b. The Pierpont Morgan Library, Art Resource, NY; 352: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 366: t. The Art Archive / Garrick Club; 371: t. Scene from Macbeth, Cattermole, By Permission of the Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D.C.; 379: t. Earl & Nazima Kowall/CORBIS; 380: Victoria & Albert Museum, London / Art Resource, NY; 387: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 393: b. Corel Professional Photos CD-ROMô; 394: 399: r. Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection, USA/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 401: r. Geoff Dann © Dorling Kindersley, Courtesy of David Edge; 402: RÈunion des MusÈes Nationaux / Art Resource, NY; 410: t. The Art Archive / Garrick Club; 414: CORBIS; 422: tl. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples, Italy, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 423: r. Boden/Ledingham/Masterfile; 427: b. Robbie Jack/CORBIS; 437: OMD Corp.; 438: Jason Hawkes/CORBIS; 439: Peter Bennett/Ambient Images; 439: t. Nathan Benn/CORBIS; 440: Nigel Hicks/ © Dorling Kindersley; 462–463: 464: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 464: l. Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, France, Archives Charmet / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 465: m. British Museum, London, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 465: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 465: m. FoodCollection / SuperStock; 465: b. Image Source Black / SuperStock; 466: BL Anatomical drawing of hearts and blood vessels from Quaderni di Anatomia vol 2, folio 3v, 1499, Vinci, Leonardo da (1452–1519) / Private Collection, / The Bridgeman Art Library; 466: br. Private Collection, © Look and Learn / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 466: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 467: b. © Leeds Museums and Galleries (City Art Gallery) U.K., / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 467: t. © Museum of London, UK, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 468: t. Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection, USA, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 468: b. Blue Lantern Studio/CORBIS; 469: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 469: t. Archivo Iconografico, S.A./CORBIS; 470: l. Getty Images; 470: m. Tibor Bogn·r/CORBIS; 470: r. Matthias Kulka/ zefa/Corbis; 471: l. Marylebone Cricket Club, London/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 471: r. istockphoto.com; 472: l. DE AGOSTINI EDITORE PICTURE LIBRARY/Getty Images; 472: r. Bettmann/CORBIS; 473: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 473: tl. Time Life Pictures/Getty Images; 473: tr. istockphoto.com; 474: mt. Private Collection, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 474: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 474: MB istockphoto. com; 475: The Gallery Collection/CORBIS; 477: r. Prentice Hall; 477: l. Patrick Ingrand/Getty Images; 478: The Art Archive/BibliothÈque des Arts DÈcoratifs Paris/Dagli Orti; 478: b. © Guildhall Library, City of London/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 479: The Trustees of the Goodwood Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 481: Michael Nicholson/CORBIS; 482: Fair is My Love, 19 (oil on canvas) by Edwin A. Abbey (1852–1911), Harris Museum and Art Gallery, Preston, Lancashire, UK/Bridgeman Art Library; 486: Sir Thomas Aston at the Deathbed of His Wife, John Souch © Manchester City Art Galleries; 488–489: Simon Plant/zefa/CORBIS; 496: © Lenore Weber/omniphoto.com.; 496: Lebrecht Music & Arts Photo Library; 499: Portrait of Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheriden, Thomas Gainsborough, Andrew W. Mellon Collection © Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington; 500: The Granger Collection, New York; 505: © Ferens Art Gallery, Hull City Museums and Art Galleries, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 506: Image copyright © The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY; 509: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 509: b. 510: Private Collection, © Odon Wagner Gallery, Toronto, Canada / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 511: The Granger Collection, New York; 512: Young Man Writing , Joos van Craesbeeck (follower of), Musee des Beaux-Arts, Nantes, France, Giraudon/The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 513: 515: © Print Collector / HIP / The Image Works; 516: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz; 518: r. The Pierpont Morgan Library / Art Resource, NY; 518: r. Image Select / Art Resource, NY; 519: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 519: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 520: mr. Twentieth Century Fox Film Corp.; 520: ml. Universal Pictures/Photofest; 520: b. LUCASFILM/20TH CENTURY FOX / THE KOBAL COLLECTION; 520: t. istockphoto.com; 525: The Granger Collection, New York; 533: The Granger Collection, New York; 535: 536: © The New Yorker Collection 1988 J.B. Handelsman from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.; 540: MR Mary Evans Picture Library; 540: tl. © Stapleton Collection/ Corbis; 540: bl. © Geoffrey Clements/CORBIS; 540: tr. © Nik Wheeler/ CORBIS; 540: br. Blue Lantern Studios/CORBIS; 540: ml. Mary Evans Picture Library; 542: Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence, Italy, Alinari / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 543: Gustave Dore, Judecca—Lucifer, Inferno XXXIV, 1862. New York Public Library Special Collections, L’Enfer de Dante Alighieri avec dessins de Gustave Dore, 1862. The New York Public Library / Art Resource, NY; 545: The Granger Collection, New York; 546: Bettmann/CORBIS; 548: Gustave Dore, “Poets emerge from Hell, Inferno XXXIV, 139,” 1862. New York Public Library Special Collections, L’Enfer de Dante Alighieri avec dessins de Gustave Dore, 1862. The New York Public Library / Art Resource, NY; 553: Hulton- Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 554: CORBIS; 559: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY; 559: t. Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library; 560: Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library; 562: The Granger Collection, New York; 563: Annette Fournet/CORBIS; 564–565: Brendan Regan/CORBIS; 567: The Art Archive/Galleria Sabauda Turin/Dagli Orti; 570: b. The Bridgeman Art Library; 570: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 571: The Granger Collection, New York; 573: The Art Archive / London Museum / Eileen Tweedy; 574: 576: The Granger Collection, New York; 578: ing Charles II (1630–1685) the Great Fire of London, 1666 (gouache on paper), Doughty, C.L. (1913–1985) / Private Collection, © Look and Learn / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 582: Eric Fougere/VIP Images/CORBIS; 582–583: Pete Turner/Getty Images; 583: Avon Books. Jacket desgin by Amy Halperin.; 585: Alan Sirulnikoff/ Getty Images; 586: Alan Sirulnikoff/Getty Images; 589: Lebrecht Music & Arts Photo Library; 589: Private Collection, / The Bridgeman Art Library InternationalPrivate Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 590: Courtesy of the Trustees of British Library; 594: The Granger Collection, New York; 604: Judith Miller / Dorling Kindersley / The Blue Pump; 605: The Granger Collection, New York; 605: t. National Portrait Gallery, London, UK, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 605: b. Garry Gay /Getty Images; 606: The Granger Collection, New York; 607: Tom Grill/Corbis; 608: Siede Preis/Getty Images; 611: The Granger Collection, New York; 617: © Sotheby’s / akg-images; 619: The Granger Collection, New York; 623: The Granger Collection, New York; 624: © The Trustees of The British Museum; 626: © The New Yorker Collection 1988 J.B. Handelsman from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.; 629: The Granger Collection, New York; 630: 633: The Granger Collection, New York; 636: The Granger Collection, New York; 638: The Granger Collection, New York; 640: Historical Picture Archive/CORBIS; 641: The Granger Collection, New York; 647: The Granger Collection, New York; 648: Private Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 649: The Granger Collection, New York; 652: Private Collection, / The Bridgeman Art Library; 654: The Granger Collection, New York; 655: The Granger Collection, New York; 657: The Granger Collection, New York; 658: © British Museum; 662: © The New Yorker Collection 1995 Ed Fisher from cartoon- bank.com. All Rights Reserved.; 672: The Granger Collection, New York; 673: Victoria & Albert Museum, London / Art Resource, NY; 677: Girl Writing by Lamplight, c. 1850, by William Henry Hunt (1790–1864), The Maas Gallery London/ Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 681: The Granger Collection, New York; 682: The Granger Collection, New York; 686: Prentice Hall; 687: The Granger Collection, New York; 689: Neil Emmerson/Getty Images; 690: Dave G. Houser/CORBIS; 691: Bill Ross/CORBIS; 692: Mark Karrass/CORBIS; 697: Prentice Hall; 714–715: Two Men Observing the Moon, Caspar David Friedrich, oil on canvas, 35 x 44.5 cm, (1819–1820), Staatl, Kunstsammlungen, Neue Meister, Dresden, Germany, Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; 716: © Mary Evans Picture Library/The Image Works; 717: bm. Derby Museum and Art Gallery, UK, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 717: bl. Private Collection, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 717: br. The Wanderer Over the Sea of Clouds, 1818, by Caspar-David Friedrich (1774–1840), Kunsthalle, Hamburg/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 717: tr. Warren Faidley/CORBIS; 717: m. age fotostock / SuperStock; 717: tm. Tate, London / Art Resource, NY; 717: tl. Image copyright Photo credit : The Metropolitan Museum of Art / Art Resource, NY; 718: bl. The Gallery Collection/CORBIS; 718: br. istockphoto.com; 718: t. 719: r. Fine Art Photographic Library/CORBIS; 719: l. Leonard de Selva/CORBIS; 720: The Granger Collection, New York; 721: l. rivate Collection/ Archives Charmet/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 721: r. National Portrait Gallery, London, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 722: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 722: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 723: BL istock- photo.com; 724: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 724: BL Bettmann/ CORBIS; 724: br. The Art Archive / British Museum / Eileen Tweedy; 725: b. Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 725: t. Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY; 726: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 726: t. Hulton- Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 727: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 727: l. Bettmann/CORBIS; 729: tr. Prentice Hall; 729: tl. Bettmann/CORBIS; 729: b. Bettmann/CORBIS; 730: ORION / THE KOBAL COLLECTION; 731: British Museum, London, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 733: 734: istockphoto.com; 736: l. istockphoto.com; 737: The Bow, Talbot Hughes, Warrington Museum and Art Gallery, Cheshire, UK/Bridgeman Art Library; 740: 741: t. M. Angelo/CORBIS; 741: b. 742: The Village Wedding, detail, by Sir Luke Fildes (1844–1927), Christopher Wood Gallery, London/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 747: Blue Lantern Studio/CORBIS; 748: The Granger Collection, New York; 750: The Pierpont Morgan Library / Art Resource, NY; 751: The Granger Collection, New York; 752: 753: © The New Yorker Collection 1991 Mick Stevens from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.; 756: b. Prentice Hall; 756: t. Charles O’Rear/CORBIS; 757: Bettmann/CORBIS; 759: Bettmann/ CORBIS; 760: Douglas Pearson/CORBIS; 762: border Werner H.Mueller/ zefa/Corbis; 764: border rubberball; 765: © The New Yorker Collection LIT10_SENA_R85-R88_G12_CRED_R.inR86 R86 LIT10_SENA_R85-R88_G12_CRED_R.inR86 R86 9/25/08 2:26:41 PM 9/25/08 2:26:41 PM 1995 Ed Fisher from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.; 771: Courtesy of Broadway Video Enterprises and NBC Studios, Inc.; 773: The Wanderer Over the Sea of Clouds, 1818, by Caspar-David Friedrich (1774–1840), Kunsthalle, Hamburg/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 776: m. Michael Nicholson/CORBIS; 776–777: Peter Adams/JAI/CORBIS; 777: HIP / Art Resource, NY; 778: Roy Rainford/Robert Harding World Imagery/CORBIS; 780: 785: Private Collection/ © Agnew’s, London, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 786–787: border Corbis / SuperStock; 787: Stefano Bianchetti/CORBIS; 789: 790: Jose Fuste Raga/CORBIS; 791: Comstock / SuperStock; 793: George Logan/zefa/CORBIS; 796: l. Massimo Listri/CORBIS; 796: m. Terje Kveen; 798: t. State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia/The Bridgeman Art Library; 798: b. Stapleton Collection/CORBIS; 799: “Lake Scene in France”, 19th century, oil on canvas. The Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle, County Durham, UK, The Bridgeman Art Library, New York.; 802: “Lake Scene in France”, 19th century, oil on canvas. The Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle, County Durham, UK, The Bridgeman Art Library, New York.; 804: Art Resource/The New York Public Library Photographic Services; 805: PoodlesRock/CORBIS; 806: l. Demetrio Carrasco/JAI/ CORBIS; 806: r. © Steven Bourelle; 807: Heibonsha/Pacific Press Service; 808: Heibonsha/Pacific Press Service; 814: Kim Sayer/ © Dorling Kindersley; 815: Charles Bowman/Robert Harding World Imagery; 816: Kevin Jones/ © Dorling Kindersley; 819: Bettmann/CORBIS; 820: The Granger Collection, New York; 822: Engraving by Gust·ve DorÈ for The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge © 1970 by Dover Publications, Inc.; 823: Creativ Studio Heinemann; 825: The Granger Collection, New York; 827: The Granger Collection, New York; 833: The Granger Collection, New York; 836: The Granger Collection, New York; 838: The Granger Collection, New York; 838: imagewerks; 840: The Granger Collection, New York; 843: The Granger Collection, New York; 846: Box and Cover, Ming Dynasty, first half of 16th century, lacquer, black; mother-of-pearl; wood; fabric. H. 4 in. The Seattle Art Museum, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Louis Brechemin, Photo by Paul Macapia.; 848: Werner Forman / Art Resource, NY; 853: Chris Hellier/Corbis; 854: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY; 857: 857: Bkgrnd istockphoto.com; 859: Bkgrnd istockphoto.com; 860: Michael Nicholson/CORBIS; 867: Gustavo Tomsich/CORBIS; 868: Kazuyoshi Nomachi/CORBIS; 871: Alinari / Art Resource, NY; 895: Science Museum, London, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 898: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 898: m. The Granger Collection, New York; 898: t. Sean Sexton Collection/CORBIS; 899: Alamy; 900: 903: b. Courtesy of the Trustees of Sir John Soane’s Museum, London, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 903: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 905: Courtesy of the Trustees of Sir John Soane’s Museum, London, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 906: Grace Bergenicht Gallery, New York; 911: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 911: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 912: 916: Jean Georges Ferry; 940–941: The Railway Station, 1862, by William Powell Frith (1819–1909), Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Surrey, UK/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 942: BR Hulton- Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 942: BL Joseph Sohm/Visions of America/ CORBIS; 942: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 942: The Granger Collection, New York; 942: m. The Art Archive / Alfredo Dagli Orti; 943: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 943: BL Michael Nicholson/CORBIS; 943: br. The Granger Collection, New York; 943: tl. Historical Picture Archive/ CORBIS; 943: tr. Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 943: bl. Guildhall Library, City of London/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 943: tl. Hulton- Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 943: m. Bettmann/CORBIS; 943: br. © Private Collection/ The Stapleton Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 944: tr. Medford Historical Society Collection/CORBIS; 944: tl. Bettmann/ CORBIS; 944: b. CORBIS; 945: BL Stapleton Collection/CORBIS; 945: br. Bettmann/CORBIS; 945: t. Day Dream, 1880, Dante Gabriel Rosetti, Victoria & Albert Museum, London, UK/ The Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 946: bm. Brooklyn Museum/CORBIS; 946: bl. Bettmann/CORBIS; 946: br. Bettmann/CORBIS; 946: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 947: bl. The Gallery Collection/CORBIS; 947: br. istockphoto.com; 947: t. istockphoto.com; 948: m. Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 948: b. Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS; 949: l. Bettmann/CORBIS; 949: m. Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 949: r. istockphoto.com; 950: t. Mary Evans Picture Library; 950: CORBIS; 951: br. Bettmann/CORBIS; 951: BL Bettmann/CORBIS; 951: bm. istock- photo.com; 953: r. gezette.de Buro fur Fotografie; 953: l. Mick Roessler / SuperStock; 954: l. © Alamy Images; 954: r. age fotostock / SuperStock; 957: © Archivo Iconografico/CORBIS; 959: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/ CORBIS; 960: The Stages of Life, c.1835 (oil on canvas) by Caspar-David Friedrich (1774–1840), Museum der Bildenden Kunste, Leipzig/ Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 962: © Tate Gallery, London/ Art Resource, NY. Tate Gallery, London, Great Britain; 969: Don Farrall/ Getty Images; 970: Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Ulysses, 1827, Chester Dale Collection, Photograph © Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington; 977: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 978: North Carolina Museum of Art/CORBIS; 981: The Bridgeman Art Library International; 983: Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY; 985: Michael Nicholson/CORBIS; 987: 989: The Reader, Silvestro Lega, Alinari/Art Resource, NY; 992: Illustration from The Oxford Illustrated Dickens; 994: t. Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 994: SuperStock, Inc. / SuperStock; 995: Stapleton Collection/CORBIS; 996: Robbie Jack/ CORBIS; 1005: 1012: Lebrecht Music & Arts Photo Library; 1013: The Bridgeman Art Library; 1016: The Bridgeman Art Library; 1020: The Bridgeman Art Library; 1023: t. Stapleton Collection/CORBIS; 1023: b. © Michael Nicholson/CORBIS; 1024: b. © Michael Nicholson/ CORBIS; 1025: b. © Raymond Gehman/CORBIS; 1025: t. photo by JohnMoranPhoto.com; 1026: AP/Wide World Photos; 1029: 1030: Private Collection, © The Maas Gallery, London, UK / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 1033: Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS; 1039: Private Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 1041: Michael Nicholson/CORBIS; 1042: UK21 / Alamy; 1044: The Granger Collection, New York; 1045: Hulton Archive Photos/Getty Images Inc.; 1046: Private Collection/Bridgeman Art Library, London/New York; 1047: Judith Miller / Dorling Kindersley / Thos. Wm. Gaze & Son; 1048: r. Private Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 1048: l. The Granger Collection, New York; 1050: © The New Yorker Collection 1988 J.B. Handelsman from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.; 1052: t. gezette.de Buro fur Fotografie; 1052: Royalty-Free/CORBIS; 1053: © David Noton/Masterfile; 1054: t. Reuters Photographer / Reuters/Reuters/CORBIS; 1054: m. © Corbis / SuperStock; 1055: Inset Bettmann/CORBIS; 1056: Judith Miller / Dorling Kindersley / Thos. Wm. Gaze & Son; 1058: b. age fotostock / SuperStock; 1058: t. age fotostock / SuperStock; 1060–1061: Mario Anzuoni/Reuters/CORBIS; 1064: t. Hulton Archive Photos/Getty Images; 1064: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 1064: 1067: m. Two mousetrap cameras, c.1835 (wood), English School, (19th century) / NMPFT, Bradford, West Yorkshire, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 1067: tl. Ironbridge Gorge Museum, Telford, Shropshire, UK/The Bridgeman Art Library; 1067: tr. © The Art Archive / Musee de I’Affiche Paris / Dagli Orti; 1067: br. The Science Museum/ Science & Society Picture Library; 1067: tm. The Granger Collection, New York; 1067: BL The Granger Collection, New York; 1068: Image courtesy of The Advertising Archives; 1071: Past and Present (no.2), Augustus Leopold Egg, Tate Gallery, London/Art Resource, NY; 1073: 1074: The Soul of the Rose, 1908, John William Waterhouse, Private Collection/Julian Hartnoll, London, UK/Bridgeman Art Library; 1077: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 1079: he Art Archive / MusÈe d’Orsay Paris / Gianni Dagli Orti; 1080: RÈunion des MusÈes Nationaux / Art Resource, NY; 1083: 1086: Alinari / Art Resource, NY; 1087: © Mary Evans/Jeffrey Morgan Collection/ The Image Works; 1091: Hulton- Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 1093: age fotostock / SuperStock; 1109: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 1118–1119: © Musee National d’Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France/ Peter Willi/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 1124: BL Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS: 1124: bm. Bettmann/CORBIS; 1124: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 1124: br. istockphoto.com; 1125: bl. Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 1125: BR The Granger Collection, New York; 1125: m. The Granger Collection, New York; 1125: t. The Granger Collection, New York; 1126: Swim Ink 2, LLC/CORBIS; 1126: l. Bettmann/CORBIS; 1126: tl. Bettmann/CORBIS; 1127: br. David J. & Janice L. Frent Collection/ CORBIS; 1127: bl. The Granger Collection, New York; 1127: t. Private Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 1128: l. Bettmann/CORBIS; 1128: r. The Granger Collection, New York; 1129: t. Bettmann/CORBIS; 1129: br. The Granger Collection, New York; 1129: bl. istockphoto.com; 1129: l. Stockbyte; 1130: br. CORBIS; 1130: t. 1130: bl. 1131: m. David Reed/ CORBIS; 1131: r. © Wojtek Buss; 1132: tl. Owen Franken/CORBIS; 1132: b. Igor Kostin/Sygma/CORBIS; 1132: tr. Dario Mitidieri/Getty Images; 1133: t. Anthony Correia/Getty Images; 1133: b. Paula Bronstein/ Getty Images; 1135: tr. Colin McPherson/CORBIS; 1135: tl. Pete Turner/ Getty Images; 1135: b. The Granger Collection, New York; 1136: Topham/ The Image Works; 1136: Art Resource, NY; 1139: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 1141: Christie’s Images/CORBIS; 1142: John Conrad/ CORBIS; 1143: Photodisc/Getty Images; 1144: Underwood & Underwood/ CORBIS; 1144: age fotostock / SuperStock; 1145: The Image Bank/Getty Images; 1147: Gilles Mermet / Art Resource, NY; 1147: Gilles Mermet / Art Resource, NY; 1148: Gilles Mermet / Art Resource, NY; 1155: Hulton-Deutsch LIT10_SENA_R85-R88_G12_CRED_R.inR87 R87 LIT10_SENA_R85-R88_G12_CRED_R.inR87 R87 9/25/08 2:26:43 PM 9/25/08 2:26:43 PM Collection/CORBIS; 1156: E.O. HoppÈ/CORBIS; 1158: Jean Kugler/Getty Images; 1163: PhotothËque R. Magritte-ADAGP / Art Resource, NY, © 1998 C. Herscovici, Brussels/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.; 1171: Bettmann/CORBIS; 1172: The Granger Collection, New York; 1172: Bkgrnd Freyda Miller/CORBIS; 1174: Michael Goldman/Getty Images; 1176: Art Projects International; 1177: 1179: Getty Images; 1180: Michael St. Maur Sheil/CORBIS; 1182: Sophie Bassouls/Sygma/ CORBIS; 1182: 1183: Paul Hardy/CORBIS; 1184: Paul Hardy/CORBIS; 1187: © Gilles Mermet / Art Resource; 1188: Getty Images; 1189: t. Private Collection, © The Bloomsbury Workshop, London / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 1189: b. Private Collection, The Stapleton Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library International; 1189: 1190: t. Marilyn Monroe, Andy Warhol, © Andy Warhol Foundation/CORBIS. TM 2006 Marilyn Monroe, LLC by CMG Worldwide, Inc / www.MarilynMonroe.com © Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts / ARS, New York; 1190: br. Getty Images; 1190: bl. 1192: RÈunion des MusÈes Nationaux / Art Resource, NY; 1193: 1195: The Garden of Love, Walter Richard Sickert, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge; 1196: RÈunion des MusÈes Nationaux / Art Resource, NY; 1197: age fotostock / SuperStock; 1198: Private Collection, / The Bridgeman Art Library International; 1200: Julian Barrow/Getty Images; 1200: 1201: Andreas Altwein/dpa/ CORBIS; 1210: b. 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Pietrunkevic, Nikolai Ge, Scala/Art Resource, NY; 1297: Sleepless Night, Nikolai Romadin, Scala/Art Resource, NY; 1302–1303: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 1305: b. courtesy of Royal Literary Fund and Special Collections, U of Birmingham; 1306: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 1308: The Art Archive / Imperial War Museum; 1308: The Art Archive / Imperial War Museum; 1313: The Granger Collection, New York; 1314: Paul Souders/ CORBIS; 1319: Steve McDonough/CORBIS; 1320: © Orwell Archive; 1323: Colin McPherson/CORBIS; 1324: HIP / Art Resource, NY; 1327: HIP / Art Resource, NY; 1330: Private Collection/ The Stapleton Collection/ The Bridgeman Art Library; 1337: Micheline Pelletier/CORBIS; 1338: Ron Stroud/Masterfile; 1340: Jean Miele/CORBIS; 1343: Peter Turnley/ CORBIS; 1344: David Bergman/CORBIS; 1355: BASSOULS SOPHIE/ CORBIS SYGMA; 1356: © Bettmann/CORBIS; 1358: “Boy on a Wall: Rat Island, 1989” from TIEPOLO’S HOUND by Derek Walcott. Copyright © 20 by Derek Walcott. Reprinted ty Permission of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, LLC. From the collection of Michael and Judy Chastanet.; 1358: Ryan McVay/Getty Images; 1363: © Smith Richard Frank/CORBIS Sygma; 1366: Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 1369: The Irish Times; 1370: Starry Night, Vincent van Gogh, Digital Image © The Museum of Modern Art/Licensed by SCALA / Art Resource, NY; 1373: JLImages / Alamy; 1375: Thierry Orban/CORBIS SYGMA; 1376: Ulrik Tofte/Getty Images; 1376: Ulrik Tofte/Getty Images; 1379: Getty Images; 1380: Getty Images; 1385: Getty Images; 1386: Arthur S. AubryGetty Images; 1388: Daniel Nevins / SuperStock; 1391: AP/Wide World Photos; 1392: Scott Stulberg/CORBIS; 1394: Scott Stulberg/CORBIS; 1397: Getty Images; 1398: image reproduced with the kind permission of the Dean and Chapter of Chichester Cathedral; 1402: t. Nicolas Elder/Globe Photos; 1402: b. Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; 1403: GK Hart/Vicky Hart/Getty Images; 1404: PIER/Getty Images; 1406: Getty Images; 1407: t. Colin McPherson/CORBIS; 1407: b. Getty Images; 1408: Artkey/ CORBIS; 1408: Artkey/CORBIS; 1410: Getty Images; 1410: Getty Images; 1412: l. Fridmar Damm/zefa/Corbis; 1412: r. Colin McPherson/CORBIS; 1413: istockphoto.com; 1415: Colin McPherson/CORBIS; 1416: Franck Guiziou/Hemis/CORBIS; 1417: Martin Harvey/CORBIS; 1422: Grace Davies/Omni-Photo Communications, Inc.; 1423: Blaine Harrington III/ CORBIS; 1431: Getty Images; 1432: © David Noton Photography / Alamy; 1434: © Orit Allush / Alamy; 1434: © Orit Allush / Alamy; 1436: Christopher Pillitz/Getty Images; 1438: Tim Graham/Getty Images; 1441: William Coupon/CORBIS; 1442: Steve Nagy/Design Pics/CORBIS; 1443: NASA/ JPL; 1444: US Geological Service; 1444: Hiroyuki Matsumoto /Getty Images; 1448: AITCH/Getty Images; 1449: t. CORBIS; 1449: b. istockphoto. com; 1449: mb. ESA/K. Horgan/Getty Images; 1449: mt. DRA/Getty Images; 1459: mc. PHERSON COLIN/CORBIS SYGMA; 1460: Luke MacGregor/Reuters/CORBIS; 1462: Tim Mosenfelder/CORBIS; 1462: Tim Mosenfelder/CORBIS;

Staff Credits
The people who made up the Pearson Prentice Hall Literature team--representing design, editorial, editorial services, education technology, manufacturing and inventory planning, market research, marketing services, planning and budgeting, product planning, production services, project office, publishing processes, and rights and permissions--are listed below. Boldface type denotes the core team members.

Tobey Antao, Margaret Antonini, Rosalyn Arcilla, Penny Baker, James Ryan Bannon, Stephan Barth, Tricia Battipede, Krista Baudo, Rachel Beckman, Julie Berger, Lawrence Berkowitz, Melissa Biezin, Suzanne Biron, Rick Blount, Marcela Boos, Betsy Bostwick, Kay Bosworth, Jeff Bradley, Andrea Brescia, Susan Brorein, Lois Brown, Pam Carey, Lisa Carrillo, Geoffrey Cassar, Patty Cavuoto, Doria Ceraso, Jennifer Ciccone, Jaime Cohen, Rebecca Cottingham, Joe Cucchiara, Jason Cuoco, Alan Dalgleish, Karen Edmonds, Irene Ehrmann, Stephen Eldridge, Amy Fleming, Dorothea Fox, Steve Frankel, Cindy Frederick, Philip Fried, Diane Fristachi, Phillip Gagler, Pamela Gallo, Husain Gatlin, Elaine Goldman, Elizabeth Good, John Guild, Phil Hadad, Patricia Hade, Monduane Harris, Brian Hawkes, Jennifer B. Heart, Martha Heller, John Hill, Beth Hyslip, Mary Jean Jones, Grace Kang, Nathan Kinney, Roxanne Knoll, Kate Krimsky, Monisha Kumar, Jill Kushner, Sue Langan, Melisa Leong, Susan Levine, Dave Liston, Mary Luthi, George Lychock, Gregory Lynch, Joan Mazzeo, Sandra McGloster, Salita Mehta, Eve Melnechuk, Kathleen Mercandetti, Artur Mkrtchyan, Karyn Mueller, Alison Muff, Christine Mulcahy, Kenneth Myett, Elizabeth Nemeth, Stefano Nese, Carrie O’Connor, April Okano, Kim Ortell, Sonia Pap, Raymond Parenteau, Dominique Pickens, Linda Punskovsky, Sheila Ramsay, Maureen Raymond, Mairead Reddin, Erin Rehill-Seker, Renee Roberts, Laura Ross, Bryan Salacki, Sharon Schultz, Jennifer Serra, Melissa Shustyk, Rose Sievers, Christy Singer, Yvonne Stecky, Cynthia Summers, Steve Thomas, Merle Uuesoo, Roberta Warshaw, Patricia Williams, Daniela Velez

Additional Credits
Lydie Bemba, Victoria Blades, Denise Data, Rachel Drice, Eleanor Kostyk, Jill Little, Loraine Machlin, Evan Marx, Marilyn McCarthy, Patrick O’Keefe, Shelia M. Smith, Lucia Tirondola, Laura Vivenzio, Linda Waldman, Angel Weyant

Video Credits
Ben Johnson : © NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, LONDON 2752; Baillie Playbill : © The Trustees of the National Library of Scotland; King James Bible Title Page : © 2008 Massachusetts Historical Society; King James Bible Psalm 90 : © 2008 Massachusetts Historical Society; Baillie Portrait : © 2007 Getty Images; William Blake by Thomas Phillips : © NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, LONDON 212; Europe: A Prophecy, William Blake 1794 : © The Trustees of the British Museum; Jacob’s Ladder, or Jacob’s Dream, William Blake : © The Trustees of the British Museum; Elohim Creating Adam,William Blake : © Tate, London 2008; Washington, DC; The Ghost of a Flea, William Blake : © Tate, London 2008; Mary Shelley : © NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, LONDON 1235; Portrait of Percy Shelley by Curran : © Portrait of Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1819 (oil on canvas), Curran, Amelia (1775-1847) / National Portrait Gallery, London, UK / The Bridgeman Art Library; Prometheus by Adam Louvre : © Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY; Lord Byron : © The Gallery Collection/Corbis; The Bright Stone of Honor : © The Gallery Collection/Corbis; Lord Byron in Albanian Dress : © NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, LONDON 142; Mary Shelley : © NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, LONDON 1235 (Re-use of image); Port Bathy and Capital of Ithaca : © Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg; Giles Litton Strachey : © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; Sissinghurst : © Adam Woolfitt/CORBIS; Leonard Wolf and John Lehmann : © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; Farm in Sussex : © Michael Boys/CORBIS; G. M. Hopkins : © 2007 Getty Images; Burmese politician : © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; Public Beach for Whites Only : © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; WWI Soldiers : © Bettmannn/CORBIS; Bob Dylan : © Bettmannn/CORBIS; Nelly Furtado : © Christian Charisius/Reuters/Corbis; Nelly Furtado : © Sevy/Images Distribution/ZUMA/Corbis; Nelly Furtado : © Reuters/CORBIS; Churchill waves to crowd : © Imperial War Museum; © Sammlungen des Fürsten von und zu Liechtenstein, Vaduz – Wien, Heinrich Fueger 1817, Prometheus brings fire to Mankindd; Prometheus door Vulcanus geketend : © Library, Rijksmueum; Lamenting the Dead, Kerch, 1942 : © Sovfoto; Churchill waves to crowd H41849 @ Imperial War Museum; Chief Minister of Kamatak : AFP/Getty Images © 2007 AFP; Andrew Marvell engraving : © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS; Bruce Springsteen : © Henry Diltz/CORBIS; Edmond Duranty by Edgar Degas : © Frances G. Mayer/CORBIS; George Orwell : © Bettmann/CORBIS; Wilfrid Owen : © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS

Prentice Hall Biology 2010

Photo Credits

Galapagos finches: Reproduced by permission from K. Petren et al., A phylogeny of Darwin's finches based on microsatellite DNA length variation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 266:321-329 (1999), p. 327, fig. 3. Copyright © 1999 Royal Society of London. Image courtesy of Kenneth Petren, University of Cincinnati.; Eagle in Nest: Alaska Division of Tourism; Sea Snake: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Wolf baring teeth: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Interior of a grocery store: © Guang Niu / Getty Images, Inc.; Customers wait in long check out lines: © Rhoda Sidney / PhotoEdit Inc.; Plant with soil visible: © Comstock Images / Jupiter; Worms: © liquidlibrary / Jupiter; Science classroom: © Comstock Images / Jupiter; Male and Female Lion: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Peacocks: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Deer - male and female: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Human couple: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Yellow field and Tree: © BananaStock / Jupiter
Garden: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Plant in Window: © AbleStock.com / Jupiter; Plant in classroom: © BananaStock / Jupiter; Cedar Waxwing: © Photos.com / Jupiter; White Crowned Sparrow: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Young White Crowned Sparrow: © Joseph V. Higbee; Trees in the sun: © Goodshoot / Jupiter; Laboratory: © AbleStock.com / Jupiter; Desert Road: © Comstock Images / Jupiter; Cold Street: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Track: © AbleStock.com / Jupiter; Weights: © Thinkstock Images / Jupiter; Science Background: © Comstock Images / Jupiter; Science Background (2): © Thinkstock Images / Jupiter; Ligament: © Thinkstock Images / Jupiter; X-ray: © AbleStock.com / Jupiter; Feather: © liquidlibrary / Jupiter; Hoof: © AbleStock.com / Jupiter; Nails: © Pixland / Jupiter; Hair: © BananaStock / Jupiter; Red algae: Tim Ridley © Dorling Kindersley; Green fronds of seaweed: © Dorling Kindersley; Cow Grazing: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Braken Fern Fronds: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Braken Fern Fronds Cooked Up: © Kathryn Hill; Man kneeling using metal tool to attach tag to shark's fin: Frank Greenaway © Dorling Kindersley; A Great White shark at the surface of the water with its mouth open and teeth showing: © The Stock Market/Amos Nachoum; Technician working on a microscope: © Photos.com / Jupiter; E. Coli Bacteria: © Dr. Dennis Kunkel / Visuals Unlimited / Getty Images Inc. Visuals Unlimited; Crayfish covered in Zebra Mussels: GLSGN Exotic Species Library / Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources; Crayfish covered in Zebra Mussels (2): © Peter Yates / Photo Researchers, Inc.; 5 maps of the zebra mussels: public domain; Couple Jogging in the park: © Comstock Images / Jupiter; Sore back and neck muscles: © Creatas Images / Jupiter; Trees killed by Acid Rain: © Simon Fraser/Science Photo Library / Photo Researchers, Inc.; Aquatic, fresh water environment: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Whale meat for sale in Japan: © J. P. SYLVESTRE / Peter Arnold, Inc.; Rice Field: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Scientist looking at genetically engineered rice: © Pallava Bagla / CORBIS All Rights Reserved; Hands holding regular and golden rice: Courtesy Syngenta; Lonesome George: © MARTIN HARVEY / Peter Arnold, Inc.; Image of a Cerra Azul tortoise: © Dr. Joe Flanagan - www.chelonia.org; Image of a Santiago tortoise: © Dr. Joe Flanagan - www.chelonia.org; Image of a Sierra Negra tortoise: © Dr. Joe Flanagan - www.chelonia.org; Image of a Volcán Wolf tortoise: © Dr. Joe Flanagan - www.chelonia.org; Ears of Corn: © Comstock Images / Jupiter; Corn kernels with test tubes: © JoAnn Frederick / Creative Eye/MIRA.com; Sunflower Seeds: Frank Greenaway © Dorling Kindersley; Switchgrass: © Wolfgang Hoffmann / USDA/ARS/Agricultural Research Service; Exhaust fumes from car in city: © Hartmut Schwarzbach / argus / Peter Arnold, Inc.; Komodo dragon: © Jose Azel / Aurora Photos, Inc.; Dmanisi Skull: © Reuters/CORBIS All Rights Reserved; Brain of LB1: Falk, D. et al., "The Brain of LB1, Homo floresiensis." Science 308, 242-45 (2005).; Sea Turtle: ©Hoyt Peckham, grupotortuguero.org; Photograph of purple wine grapes on the vine: © Chad Ehlers / Stock Connection; India, Allahabad, pilgrims gathering at river Ganges for the Kumbh Mela: Toby Sinclair © Dorling Kindersley; Tiny Plankton shell (protist) - matchstick for scale: © Wim van Egmond / Visuals Unlimited; Foraminiferan shell: © Andrew Syred / Photo Researchers, Inc.; Pyramids of Giza: ©Dallas and John Heaton/ CORBIS All Rights Reserved; Twenty different Foraminiferan species: © Ed Degginger / Color-Pic, Inc.; Sea Palms growing on intertidal rocks (ostelsia Palmaeformis), Phaeophyta, Pacific Coast, North America: © Derrick Ditchburn / Visuals Unlimited; Cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, slug stage: Visuals Unlimited; Fossil Dinosaur: Andy Crawford © Dorling Kindersley, Courtesy of the State Museum of Nature, Stuttgart; Foss il ammonites Arnioceras semicostatum: © Sinclair Stammers/Science Photo Library / Photo Researchers, Inc.; Dinosaurs in natural habitat: © Dorling Kindersley; Volcanic Activity: © Dorling Kindersley; A layer of carbon-rich sediment - called "black mat" - found at Murray Springs, AZ: Courtesy of Allen West; "The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes: Flood, Fire, and Famine in the History of Civilization". ©2006 by Richard Firestone, Allen West, Simon Warwick-Smith. Rochester, VT: Bear & Company; Dinosaur Exhibition in Edmonton Canada: © Faint, Grant V. / Getty Images Inc. - Image Bank; Shark data images: © Dr. Randy Kochevar, Stanford University; Zebra mussle: © Scott Camazine / Photo Researchers, Inc.; Zebra mussle pollution: © Peter Yates / Photo Researchers, Inc.; Image of a Española/Hood tortoise: © Kevin Schafer / Peter Arnold, Inc.; Soybeans: © Richard Embery / Pearson Education/PH College; Multicolored carpals: American Association for the Advancement of Science; Multicolored carpals (2): American Association for the Advancement of Science; Trichoplax: © Bernd Schierwater and Michael Eitel; Trichoplax reproducing asexually: © Ana Signorovitch; Trichoplax: © Bernd Schierwater and Michael Eitel; Two Trichoplax embryos, one with four cells and one with sixteen cells: © Ana Signorovitch; The global solar UV Index: © Emmanuelle Bournay, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/the-global-solar-uv-index.; Map of United States that shows skin cancer incidence rate by state: U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. United States Cancer Statistics: 1999–2005 Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report. Atlanta (GA): Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Cancer Institute; 2009. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/uscs.; Stack of bundled refuse: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Tin Cans: © BananaStock / Jupiter; Recycled Bottles: © BananaStock / Jupiter; Plastic Bottles: © BananaStock / Jupiter; Cardboard Boxes: © Photos.com / Jupiter; Newspaper: © Comstock Images / Jupiter; Factory: © Goodshoot / Jupiter; Image showing home improvement store aisles: © Michael Newman / PhotoEdit Inc.; Finnish Paper Mill: © Embassy of Finland; Kids eating at a fast food place: © Michael Newman / PhotoEdit Inc.; Landfill: © Photos.com / Jupiter

Prentice Hall Economics 2010


Economics Video Credits

Images provided by Jupiter, © 2009 Jupiterimages Unlimited, a division of Getty Images, unless otherwise indicated.

Chapter 6
Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-76245; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USF34-T01-009109-C; Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA/OWI Collection, [LC-USW3-004869-D]; Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA/OWI Collection, [LC-DIG-fsa-8d22992]

Chapter 9
Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-npcc-28421

Chapter 16
Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-hec-04846; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-hec-04868; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ6-1530

Chapter 17
North Atlantic Treaty Organization © Image Source/2009 Getty Images; Courtesy George Bush Library (NLGB) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 186460]

Chapter 18
Courtesy George Bush Library (NLGB) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 186460] Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions.

Prentice Hall Government


Government Video Credits

Images provided by Jupiter, © 2009 Jupiterimages Unlimited, a division of Getty Images, unless otherwise indicated.

Chapter 2
Illustration of Battle of Monongahela © PoodlesRock/Corbis; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-13637; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-07842; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZC4-1583; Currier & Ives: a catalogue raisonné / compiled by Gale Research. Detroit, MI / Library of Congress, LC-USZC2-2243; Courtesy of Archives I Reference Section, Textual Archives Services Division (NWCT1R), / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 301682]

Chapter 4
MLK leading Selma to Montgomery March © Bob Adelman/Corbis; USA Customs Agents © Steven Georges/Press-Telegram/Corbis; Arnold Schwarzenegger © 2009 Getty Images; Protest in opposition of Prop 8 © 2009 Getty Images; Rude Awakening © 2009 Getty Images; Flag of California © George Doyle/2009 Getty Images; Courtesy Archives I Reference Section, Textual Archives Services Division (NWCT1R) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 301667]; Courtesy of Archives I Reference Section, Textual Archives Services Division (NWCT1R) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 299807]

Chapter 5
1992 US Presidential Election © Ira Wyman/Sygma/Corbis; President Obama © Ron Sachs/Pool/CNP/Corbis; Al Gore © 2009 Getty Images; Bush and Kerry © 2009 Getty Images; Bush © AFP/2009 Getty Images; Bush © 2009 Getty Images; Bob Doyle © 2009 Getty Images; Clinton © 2009 Getty Images; Mitt Romney © 2009 Getty Images; Hillary Clinton © 2009 Getty Images; Obama Campaigns © 2009 Getty Images; Richard M. Nixon © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; President Reagan at Ft. McNair © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-117121

Chapter 6
2008 Presidential Campaign, Sarah Palin © Rick Friedman/Corbis; College Student votes at UCLA © Fred Prouser/Reuters/Corbis; Amendment © 2009 Getty Images; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-93552; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-53204; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-53204; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-130289

Chapter 7
Absentee Ballot © David Brabyn/Corbis; 2008 Elections, Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama © Michal Czerwonka/epa/Corbis; Obama Campaigns © 2009 Getty Images News; People carrying signs supporting Dems © AFP/2009 Getty Images; Howard Dean © AFP/2009 Getty Images; John McCain wins New Hampshire Primary © 2009 Getty Images; Ross Perot © AFP/2009 Getty Images; Democratic Candidates in New Hampshire © 2009 Getty Images; Florida Caucus © 2009 Getty Images; California votes on Super Tuesday © 2009 Getty Images; Broward County Recount © 2009 Getty Images; Americans at the Polls © 2009 Getty Images

Chapter 8
Obama meets with Economic Team © Brooks Kraft/Corbis; Watching Twin Towers Burn © Chris Collins/Corbis; Obama campaigns in Ohio © Peter Turnley/Corbis; President Roosevelt delivering radio address © Bettman/Corbis; John F. Kennedy with Richard M. Nixon © Bettman/Corbis; Richard Nixon and Kennedy during debate © Bettman/Corbis; Obama meets with McCain © 2009 Getty Images; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-U9-1525Q-35; Courtesy of John F. Kennedy Library (NLJFK) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 194255]

Chapter 9
US Postal workers cheering for NRA © Bettman/Corbis; First meeting of National Labor Relations Board © Bettman/Corbis; Grape strike workers marching © Ted Strashinsky/Corbis; The National Labor Relations Board © Bettman/Corbis; Men at NAOWS Headquarters in NY © 2009 Getty Images; AFL-CIO © 2009 Getty Images; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-nclc-03056; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-hec-13616; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-16723; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-19862; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-90543 Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-117862; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-nclc-00674; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ggbain-02864; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-19862

Chapter 10
Harry Reid of Nevada © Brooks Kraft/Corbis; Bush with Senators © AFP/2009 Getty Images; 111th Congress Opens © Congressional Quarterly/2009 Getty Images; Democratic Cloakroom © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; Clinton Impeachment © AFP/2009 Getty Images

Chapter 11
Kerry meets Syrian President © SANA/epa/Corbis; Hillary Clinton in Brussels © Olivier Hoslet/epa/Corbis; Strom Thurmond © Mike Stewart/Sygma/Corbis; Congress votes on Clinton impeachment © Bettman/Corbis; Senate in session © Handout/Reuters/Corbis; Clinton speaking at Whitehouse © Wally McNamee/Corbis; New EPA Staff swearing in © Brooks Kraft/Corbis; Monica Lewinsky © 2009 Getty Images; William McDaniel © 2009 Getty Images; Chief Justice William M. Rehnquist © 2009 Getty Images; Bill Clinton © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; Vernon Jordan © 2009 Getty Images; Viet Nam War Protest © 2009 Getty Images; Immigrant Rights Protest © 2009 Getty Images; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-42843; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-53443; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-13017; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-107700; Courtesy of William J. Clinton Library (NLWJC) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 2165806]; Courtesy of William J. Clinton Library (NLWJC) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 2251398]; Courtesy of Still Picture Records Section, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS-S) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 524587]; Courtesy of Archives I Reference Section, Textual Archives Services Division (NWCT1R) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 596382]

Chapter 12
Courtesy of Still Picture Records Section, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS-S) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 557027]

Chapter 13
Barack Obama elected president © Tannen Maury/epa/Corbis

Chapter 14
Joint session of congress © Michael Reynolds/epa/Corbis; UN Artillery firing on Communists © Bettman/Corbis; Harry Truman shaking hands with Eisenhower © Bettman/Corbis; Gens McArthur and Hickey in jeep © Bettman/Corbis; Presidential Seal of the United States © Joseph Sohm/Visions of America/Corbis; Truman sign proclamation © Corbis; Tanks rolling through local towns © Bettman/Corbis; President Dwight Eisenhower in Whitehouse © Bettman/Corbis; Harry Truman at his desk © Bettman/Corbis; Senator John F. Kennedy campaigning for president © Bettman/Corbis; UN Forces © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; Gerald Ford © 2009 Getty Images; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZC4-599

Chapter 15
President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden with full Cabinet, Official White House Photo © Chuck Kennedy/White House/Sipa Press/0909141931/Newscom; Shopping cart © Najlah Feanny/Corbis; FCC Chief Michael Powell © Kevin LaMarque/Reuters/Corbis; Seal of US Dept of Justice © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; State Dept Seal © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; Seal of Dept of Defense © 2009 Getty Images; Swearing In of Atty General Mukasey © 2009 Getty Images; Consumer Product Safety on Toys; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-513; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-134601; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-nclc-01171; Courtesy of Still Picture Records Section, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS-S) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 547244]

Chapter 16
Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-84130

Chapter 17
Patrol on the US-Mexico Border © Shaul Shwarz/Corbis; Operations Command Center © George Steinmetz/Corbis; Operations Command Center © George Steinmetz/Corbis; Afghanistan-NATO ISAF change of command ceremony © Seltan Mohammad/epa/Corbis; Civil war in Yugoslavia © Patrick Robert/Sygma/Corbis; World Summit of the Drug and Agriculture Organization of the UN © Corbis Sygma; World Health Organization Headquarters in Geneva © Frabrice Coffrini/epa/Corbis; Margaret Chan, new WHO Director-General © Xinhua Press/Corbis; US Secretary of State Candoleeza Rice and Palestinian Authority © Atef Safadi/epa/Corbis; 63rd Session of the United Nations Assembly © Stephen Chernin/epa/Corbis; Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton © Matthew Cavanaugh-Pool/epa/Corbis; Bill Richardson on airport tarmac © Reza/Webistan/Corbis; Seal of Dept of Homeland Security © 2009 Getty Images; TSA Airport Screener © 2009 Getty Images; Homeland Security threat rasied to Orange © 2009 Getty Images; Bush remarks on Homeland Security © AFP/2009 Getty Images; Utah National Guard © 2009 Getty Images; US Border Protection © 2009 Getty Images; Chertoff at FEMA briefing © 2009 Getty Images; Texas damage after Hurricane Ike © 2009 Getty Images; US Secret Service Agents © AFP/2009 Getty Images; Gen. Lance L. Smith © 2009 Getty Images; Ch 17 Military Control © AFP/2009 Getty Images; US/South Korea joint military exercises © 2009 Getty Images; Head of US Africa © Tom Stoddart/2009 Getty Images; Command © AFP/2009 Getty Images; Kosovo, Prisitana crowd © Tom Stoddart/2009 Getty Images; Afghan children © AFP/2009 Getty Images; Albanians greet American NATO troops © 2009 Getty Images; North Atlantic Treaty Organization © Image Source/2009 Getty Images; Indonsian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono © AFP/2009 Getty Images; Mexico v. US at International Court of Justice © 2009 Getty Images; UN Council © 2009 Getty Images; 60th Annivwary of International Court of Justice; © 2009 Getty Images; UN Security Council emergency council © 2009 Getty Images; UN Council of Peace Meeting © 2009 Getty Images; UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon © AFP/2009 Getty Images; Courtesy of Harry S. Truman Library (NLHST) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 200163 ]

Chapter 18
USA - Politics - Supreme Court Justice Group Photo © Dennis Brack/Newscom; L.B. Sullivan with attorneys © Bettman/Corbis; US Court of Appeals District of Columbia Judges © AFP/2009 Getty Images; Martin Luther King, Jr. © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-pplot-13737; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsc-01269; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-pplot-13735

Chapter 19
Supreme Court lifts DC gun ban © Stefan Zaklin/epa/Corbis; Striking at Chrevolet plant © Bettman/Corbis; Justice Scalia in Texas © Bob Daemmrich/Corbis; Frank Hague © Bettman/Corbis; Urban workers raise their hands to vote; © Bettman/Corbis

Chapter 20
Lethal injection chamber © Mark Jenkinson/Corbis; Demonstrators march in Terre Haute © Reuters/Corbis; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-53345

Chapter 21
Traffic waiting to pass from Mexico to the US © Danny Lehman/Corbis; GI Drive © 2009 Getty Images; Jackie Robinson © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; African American students exiting bus © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; States Rights demonstrators © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; Jackie Robinson (Second Usage) © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; Family watching television © Retrofile/2009 Getty Images; Jackie Robinson and Havana fans © 2009 Getty Images; Education segregation, Sept 1957 © Popperfoto/2009 Getty Images; Playing on Johns Island © 2009 Getty Images; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsc-01269; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-nclc-01738; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-nclc-01852; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-nclc-01885; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-nclc-02016; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsc-02132;Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-nclc-03044; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-nclc-03056; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-03090; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-03095; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-nclc-03099; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-U9-183B-20; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-03128; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-04300; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-11761; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-ppmsca-18621; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-DIG-npcc-30454; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-58327; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZC6-26; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-75794; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-107101; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-120155; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-134432; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-G613-T-56475

Chapter 22
Stalin with members of farming collective © Hulton Deutsch Collection/Corbis; Women and children at Bergen-Belson Family Homestead in USSR © Bettman/Corbis; Calderon election © Erich Schlegel/Dallas Morning News/Corbis; Andres Manual Lopez Obregon © David de la Paz/epa/Corbis; Felipe Calderon Hinojosa © Mario Guzman/epa/Corbis; Legislators call for peace before Calderon inauguration © Erich Schlegel/Dallas Morning News/Corbis; Mexican President Felipe Calderon © Alejandro Bolivar/epa/Corbis; PRD rally in Mexico © Sergio Dorantes/Corbis; Mexican Legislators discuss 2002 federal budget © Corbis; A resident of Villahermosa © Reuters/Corbis; State opening of Parliament © Pool Photograph/Corbis; House of Commons in Session © Hulton Deutsch Collection/Corbis; British House of Commons © Bettman/Corbis; The Queen makes her speech © Reuters/Corbis; Crowd of supporters in Mexico © AFP/2009 Getty Images; Courtroom in Mexico © AFP/2009 Getty Images; British Prime Minister Gordon Brown © AFP/2009 Getty Images; Courtesy of Still Picture Records Section, Special Media Archives Services Division (NWCS-S) / National Archives, Washington DC [ARC Identifier 531271]

Chapter 23
May Day demonstrations at Colosseum © Ansa/Corbis; Seal of Federal Reserve Banking Board of Governors © Louie Psihoyos/Corbis; United auto workers protesting NAFTA © Najlah Feanny/Corbis Saba; William J. Clinton © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; Ministry of Foreign Affairs © Time Life & Pictures/2009 Getty Images; Mexico, Vera Cruz Totonac men in field © David Hiser/2009 Getty Images

Chapter 24
Deval Patrick wins election © Rick Friedman/Corbis; Obama introduced nominees © Ann Ryan/Pool/Corbis; Ken Blackwell © John Sommers/Reuters/Corbis

Chapter 25
Nizipuhwasin Blackfeet Native Language School © Catherine Karnow/Corbis; Blackfeet Tribal Person Earl Old Person © Catherine Karnow/Corbis; President George W. Bush © Kevin Lamarque/Reuters/Corbis; John Collier with Blackfoot Indians © Bettman/Corbis; Chief Wallace © Peter Turnley/Corbis; Hurricane Floyd © Orlando Sentinel/Corbis Sygma; Pueblo Tribal Governor and Secretary © Robert E. Daemmrich/2009 Getty Images; Courtesy of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ62-112159

Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions.

Middle Grade Science 2011


Photo Credits


Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for photographic material. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions.

Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the property of Pearson Education, Inc.

Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R), Background (Bkgd)

48 Thinkstock; 151 Thinkstock; 275 Jupiterimages / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock; 300 Alex S. MacLean /Landslides, Alex S. MacLean /Peter Arnold, Inc., Dr. Jeremy Burgess /Photo Researchers, Inc., Jupiterimages / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, USDA; 347 Colin Keates/©DK Images, Hemera Technologies / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Jupiterimages / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Thinkstock; 398 ©Tony Freeman/PhotoEdit, Ablestock / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Brand X Pictures/Thinkstock, George Doyle /Thinkstock, Hemera technologies/Getty images/Thinkstock, iStockphoto, Jupiterimages/Thinkstock, Thomas Northcut/Thinkstock, Tony Freeman/PhotoEdit, Inc.; 428 Emir Simsek/Shutterstock, Leszczynski, Zig /Animals Animals/Earth Scenes, Mark Smith /Photo Researchers, Inc.; 435 Kurt Schaefer/Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, Ablestock / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, California Department of Fish and Game, OSPR, Creatas Images / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Hemera Technologies / ©Getty Images /Thinkstock, Hemera Technologies / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Jupiter Unlimited/Thinkstock, Jupiterimages / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, NOAA, Photos / ©Getty ImageS/Thinkstock, Thinkstock, Zedcor Wholly Owned / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock; 476 ©Andrew Syred/Photo Researchers, Inc., ©DK Images, Asa Thoresen /Photo Researchers, Inc., NIBSC /Photo Researchers, Inc.; 514 Hemera Technologies / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Jupiterimages / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Karl Shone /©DK Images; 527 Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine/Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology; 555 Thinkstock; 600 Jupiterimages/ ©Getty Images/Thinkstock; 727 Leonard Lessin/Peter Arnold/PhotoLibrary Group, Inc., Richard Megna /Fundamental Photographs, Shutterstock; 746 Thinkstock; 1003 Goodshoot/Thinkstock; 1071 ©Comstock Images/Getty Images, Comstock Images / Getty images /Thinkstock, Hemera technologies / Getty images/Thinkstock, Jupiterimages / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock; 1130 Brand X Pictures/Thinkstock, Photos / ©Getty Images /Thinkstock, Photos / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock; 1174 Comstock /Thinkstock; 1267 Hemera technologies / Getty images /Thinkstock; 1308 Comstock /Thinkstock, Jupiterimages/ ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Thinkstock; 1314 Hemera technologies / Getty images/Thinkstock, Jupiterimages / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Liquidlibrary / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock; 1395 Comstock /Thinkstock; 1412 Shutterstock; 10035 U.S. Geological Survey; 10077 Jason Reed /Thinkstock; 10251 Comstock /Thinkstock, John Foxx /Thinkstock; 10302 ©ntstudio/Shutterstock, ©Olga Semicheva/Shutterstock, Ablestock / ©Getty Images /Thinkstock, Andy Sotiriou /Thinkstock, Brand X Pictures /Thinkstock, Comstock Images /Thinkstock, Jupiterimages/ ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Paul Tearle /Thinkstock, Ryan McVay /Thinkstock, Thinkstock, Tom Brakefield /Thinkstock; 10309 ©Jarrod Erbe/Shutterstock; 10437 Bananastock /Thinkstock, Goodshoot /Thinkstock, Thomas Northcut /Thinkstock; 10537 ©Antonio Jorge Nunes/Shutterstock, ©Ekaterina Cherkashina/Shutterstock, ©Eric Isselée/Shutterstock, ©Gladkova Svetlana/Shutterstock, jupiter /getty /Thinkstock; 10585 Tony Freeman /PhotoEdit, Inc.; 10617 ©Andre Adams/Shutterstock, ©JackF/Shutterstock; 10812 BananaStock /Thinkstock, Brand X Pictures/Thinkstock, Comstock Images /Thinkstock, Jeffrey Hamilton /Thinkstock, Jupiterimages /Thinkstock, Jupiterimages /Thinkstock, Logo courtesy of U.S. EPA/©EPA; 10946 Jupiterimages / Getty images/Thinkstock, PhotoObjects /Thinkstock; 11030 Creatas /Thinkstock, jupiter images / getty /Thinkstock; 11048 Dynamic Graphics /©Getty Images/Thinkstock; 11078 ©Matamu/Shutterstock, McGimsey, Game./U.S. Geological Survey, Shutterstock, U.S. Geological Survey; 11088 Robert Fried /©Robert Fried Photography; 11151 Dynamic Graphics/ getty images /Thinkstock, Jupiterimages©Getty Images/Thinkstock, NASA; 11219 Thinkstock; 11232 Polka Dot Images/Thinkstock, ©Geoffrey Kuchera/Shutterstock, ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, ©Jimmy Lee/Shutterstock, Anup Shah /Thinkstock, Digital Vision. /Thinkstock, Eising /Thinkstock, Hemera Technologies/ ©Getty Images /Thinkstock, The Wolverine Foundation, Inc., Thinkstock; 11274 Comstock Images/ Getty Images/Thinkstock, ©Joe Belanger/Shutterstock, Ablestock / Getty images /Thinkstock, Brand X Pictures /Thinkstock, Comstock Images / Getty images/Thinkstock, Goodshoot /Thinkstock, Hemera technologies / Getty images/Thinkstock, Jupiterimages / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Jupiterimages / getty images /Thinkstock, technologies / Getty images/Thinkstock, Tom Brakefield /Thinkstock; 11280 ©mashe/Shutterstock, Jupiterimages / getty images/Thinkstock, Photodisc /Thinkstock, Tom Brakefield /Thinkstock; 11319 David Young-Wolff/Alamy Images, Karl Weatherly/Thinkstock; 11455 ©Hywit Dimyadi/Shutterstock, ExxonMobil Corporation, Manfred Kage /Peter Arnold, Inc., Paul Katz /Thinkstock, Thinkstock Images /Thinkstock; 11553 Jupiterimages /©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Jupiterimages /Thinkstock, Thinkstock; 11585 ©Potapov Alexander/Shutterstock, Comstock Images /Thinkstock; 11636 ©fotogiunta/Shutterstock, Jupiterimages / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Kate Whitaker/©DK Images, Peggy Greb/Courtesy of USDA, Agricultural Research Service; 11647 Barbara Cousins / Pearson Education; 11681 Jupiterimages / ©Getty Images /Thinkstock, Photos ©Getty Images /Thinkstock, Thinkstock; 11732 ©apdesign/Shutterstock, ©cbDesign/Shutterstock, ©Dzianis/Shutterstock, ©Jennifer Johnson, Blue Cherry Graphics/Shutterstock, ©vnlit/Shutterstock, Ablestock / getty /Thinkstock, Andy Sotiriou /Thinkstock, Comstock Images /Thinkstock, Jupiterimages / getty images /Thinkstock, Jupiterimages / getty images/Thinkstock, Jupiterimages/ ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Jupiterimages/©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Medioimages/Photodisc /Thinkstock, MW/Thinkstock, upiterimages/©Getty Images/Thinkstock; 11738 ©Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images, Andy Sotiriou /Thinkstock, News & Media Relations, Rice University, Nick White /Thinkstock, Photo by Patrick Queen; 11750 ©Leah-Anne Thompson/Shutterstock, David De Lossy /Thinkstock, Jupiter images /Thinkstock, Photos/ ©Getty Images /Thinkstock, Polka Dot Images /Thinkstock; 11785 ©Bluerain/Shutterstock, ©Ingvar Bjork/Shutterstock, ©Marin/Shutterstock, ©Matsonashvili Mikhail/Shutterstock, Comstock /Thinkstock, Michael Andrews/Animals Animals/Earth Scenes, National Geographic Image Collection, Paul W. Leibhardt, photodisc / Karl Weatherly/Thinkstock, photos /Thinkstock, Thinkstock, UNEP /Peter Arnold, Inc.; 11932 Bruce Rolff/Shutterstock, Comstock Images /Thinkstock; 12081 Dr. Amir C. Akhavan, Tom Bochsler Photography ; 12182 ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Ablestock / ©Getty Images /Thinkstock, Brand X Pictures /Thinkstock, Comstock /Thinkstock, George Doyle /Thinkstock, Jupiterimages/Getty Images/Thinkstock, NASA, Photos / ©Getty Images /Thinkstock, Russell Illig /Thinkstock, Stockbyte /Thinkstock, Thinkstock; 12208 ©Planner/Shutterstock, ©Yurly Chaban/Shutterstock, Brand X Pictures /Thinkstock, Comstock /Thinkstock, Courtesy of Intel Corporation, Hemera Technologies/©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Jupiterimages/ ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Michael Matisse/Thinkstock, Paul Katz /Thinkstock, Photos / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, U.S. Department of Energy Genome Program"s Genome Management Information System; 12219 ©Robert Adrian Hillman/Shutterstock, ©XAOC/Shutterstock, Ablestock / ©Getty Images /Thinkstock, Photo Courtesy of Edelman, Photos / ©Getty Images /Thinkstock, Thinkstock; 12273 ©Christian Kieffer/Shutterstock, ©Fred Leonero/Shutterstock, ©Ivaschenko Roman/Shutterstock, ©Jeff Schultes/Shutterstock, ©Logan Carter/Shutterstock, ©Milos Jokic/Shutterstock, ©Oksana Shulga/Shutterstock, ©R. S. Jegg/Shutterstock, ©severija/Shutterstock, ©Susan Montgomery/Shutterstock, ©thepiwko/Shutterstock, ©Torsten Schon/Shutterstock, Ablestock /Thinkstock, David De Lossy /Thinkstock, Hemera Technologies /Thinkstock, John Foxx /Thinkstock, Neil Fletche/©DK Images, Neil Fletcher /©DK Images, Randolph Femmer/U.S. Geological Survey, Robert H. Mohlenbrock. /USDA; 12320 Stockbyte/Getty Images, /Getty Images, Comstock Images /Thinkstock, Comstock /Thinkstock, Hemera Technologies / getty images /Thinkstock, John Foxx /Thinkstock, Jupiterimages / ©Getty Images /Thinkstock, Jupiterimages / getty images /Thinkstock, Jupiterimages /Thinkstock, Medioimages/Photodisc /Thinkstock, Stockbyte /Thinkstock; 12391 ©Matthew Cole/Shutterstock, Ablestock/©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Hemera Technologies ©Getty Images/Thinkstock, Hemera Technologies/©Getty Images/Thinkstock; 12471 ©Voronin76/Shutterstock, Hemera Technologies /Thinkstock; 12553 Brand X Pictures /Thinkstock, Thomas Northcut /Thinkstock; 12609 Comstock Images /Thinkstock, Jack Hollingsworth /Thinkstock, Jupiterimages / getty images /Thinkstock, Roger Weber /Thinkstock, Sky View / Getty images /Thinkstock; 476 Steve GSCHMEISSNER/SPL/Getty Images; 48 Frank Greenaway /©DK Images, Geoff Brightling/©DK Images; 98 Photos/Getty Images/Jupiter Images; 398 Thinkstock Images / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock; 514 ©The Granger Collection, NY, Biophoto Assoc. /Photo Researchers, Inc., Dr. Andrew Hendry, McGill University, Frank Greenaway /©DK Images, Renee Lynn /Corbis, Thinkstock; 527 Digital Vision/Thinkstock; 12208 ©Martine Oger/Shutterstock; 6.1 Jupiterimages / ©Getty Images/Thinkstock; 7.6.1 Jupiterimages/Thinkstock, Jurgen Freund/Nature Picture Library.


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